هةشلث

People of Syracuse Revived rituals of Eid Alalzha for Year 2016

Al Eid Pray was done in the Almustafa Society of Syracuse on the morning of Monday 9/12/2016. May Allah bless the people here and all around the world specially our community in the Islamic countries.
Few photos of the that day:

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fatemiyyah

Fatima (sa), the Daughter of Muhammad (S), a Brief Biography

Authors(s):Yasin T. Al-Jibouri

Introduction
1. First Ma’sum is our beloved Prophet Muhammad (ص)

2.Fatima (ع) Daughter of Muhammad (ص):Fatima (615 – 632 A.D.), mother of the Imams (ع), is the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (ص) by his first wife, Khadija daughter of Khuwaylid, may the Almighty be pleased with her. Fatima was born in Mecca on a Friday, the 20th of Jumada II in the fifth year after the declaration of the Prophetic message which corresponds, according to the Christian calendar, to the year 615.

She was only 18 and 75 days when she died in Medina few days only (some say 75) after the death of her revered father (ص): The Prophet (ص) passed away on Safar 28/May 28 according to the Christian Gregorian calendar, or the 25th according to the Julian calendar, of the same year.

Fatima passed away on the 14th of Jumada I of 11 A.H. which corresponded to August 7, 632 A.D. She was buried somewhere in the graveyard of Jannatul-Baqi’ in Medina in an unmarked and unknown grave. According to her will, her husband, Imam Ali (ع), did not leave any marks identifying her grave, and nobody knows where it is. According to Shiite Muslims, she was the only daughter of the Holy Prophet (ص).

Fatima has nine names/titles: Fatima فاطمة, al-Siddiqa الصديقة (the truthful one), al-Mubaraka المباركة (the blessed one), al-Tahira الطاهرة (the pure one), al-Zakiyya الزكية (the chaste one), al-Radhiayya الرضية (the grateful one), al-Mardhiyya المرضية (the one who shall be pleased [on Judgment Day]), al-Muhaddatha المحدثة (the one, other than the Prophet, to whom an angel speaks) and al-Zahra الزهراء (the splendid one).

The Prophet (ص) taught Fatima ‎(‎ع‎) divine knowledge and endowed her with special intellectual brilliance, so much so that she realized the true meaning of faith, piety, and the reality of Islam. But Fatima ‎(‎ع‎) also was a witness to sorrow and a life of anguish from the very beginning of her life. She constantly saw how her revered father was mistreated by the unbelievers and later how she herself fell a victim to the same abuse, only this time by some “Muslims”.

A number of chronicles quote her mother, Khadija, narrating the following about the birth of her revered daughter: “At the time of Fatima’s birth, I sent for my neighboring Qurayshite women to assist me. They flatly refused, saying that I had betrayed them by marrying and supporting Muhammad. I was perturbed for a while when, to my great surprise, I saw four strange tall women with halos around their faces approaching me.

Finding me dismayed, one of them addressed me thus, ‘O Khadija! I am Sarah, mother of Ishaq (Isaac). The other three are: Mary mother of Christ, Asiya daughter of Muzahim and Umm Kulthum sister of Moses. We have all been commanded by God to put our nursing knowledge at your disposal.’ Saying this, all of them sat around me and rendered the services of midwifery till my daughter Fatima was born.”

The motherly blessings and affection received by Fatima (ع) were only for five years after which Khadija left for her heavenly home. The Holy Prophet brought her up thereafter.

The Holy Prophet said: “Whoever injures (bodily or otherwise) Fatima, he injures me; and whoever injures me injures Allah; and whoever injures Allah practices unbelief. O Fatima! If your wrath is incurred, it incurs the wrath of Allah; and if you are pleased, it makes Allah pleased, too.”

M.H. Shakir writes the following: “Fatima, the only daughter of the Holy Prophet of Islam, was born in Mecca on 20th of Jumada al-Thaniya 18 B.H. (Before Hijra). The good and noble lady Khadija and the Apostle of Allah bestowed all their natural love, care and devotion on their lovable and only child, Fatima, who in her turn was extremely fond of her parents. The Princess of the House of the Prophet was very intelligent, accomplished and cheerful. Her speeches, poems and sayings serve as an index to her strength of character and nobility of mind. Her virtues gained her the title ‘Our Lady of Light’. She was moderately tall, slender and endowed with great beauty which caused her to be called ‘az-Zahra’ (the Lady of Light)”.

Fatima (ع) was called az-Zahra’ because her light used to shine among those in the heavens. After arriving in Medina, she was married to Ali in the first year of Hijra, and she gave birth to three sons. Her sons were: Hassan, Hussain, Masters of the youths of Paradise, and Muhsin. Muhsin never saw the light because he was aborted as his mother was behind her house door fending for herself while rogues were trying to break into it and force her husband to swear the oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr. She had two daughters, Zainab, the heroine of Kerbala, and Umm Kulthum. Her children are well-known for their piety, righteousness and generosity. Their strength of character and actions changed the course of history.

The Holy Prophet said فاطمة بضعة مني, “Fatima is part of me”. He would go out to receive his daughter whenever she came from her husband’s house. Every morning on his way to the Mosque, he would pass by Fatima’s house and say, “as-Salamu `alaykum ya Ahla Bay annnubuwwah wa ma`din arr-risala ” (Peace be with you, O Ahl al-Bayt (Household of the Prophet) and the Substance of the Message).

Fatima (ع) is famous and acknowledged as the “Sayyidatu nisa ‘1-`alamin” (Leader of all the women of the world for all times) because the Prophethood of Muhammad would not have been everlasting without her. The Prophet is the perfect example for men, but could not be so for women. For all the verses revealed in the Holy Qur’an for women, Fatima is the perfect model, who translated every verse into action. In her lifetime, she was a complete woman, being Daughter, Wife and Mother at the same time.

Fatima inherited the genius and wisdom, the determination and will power, piety and sanctity, generosity and benevolence, devotion and worship of Allah, self-sacrifice and hospitality, forbearance and patience, knowledge and nobility of disposition of her illustrious father, both in words and in actions. “I often witnessed my mother,” says Imam Husain, “absorbed in prayer from dusk to dawn.”

Her generosity and compassion for the poor was such that no destitute or beggar ever returned from her door empty-handed. She (ع) worked, dressed, ate and lived very simply. She was very generous; and none who came to her door ever went away empty handed. Many times she gave away all the food she had had, staying without any food at all. As a daughter, she loved her parents so much that she won their love and regard to such an extent that the Holy Prophet (ص) used to stand up whenever she came to him.

Marriage

When Fatima came of age, a number of hopefuls sought her hand in marriage. The Holy Prophet was awaiting the Divine order in this respect until Imam `Ali approached him and asked for her hand in marriage. The Holy Prophet came to Fatima (ع) and asked, “My daughter! Do you consent to be wedded to `Ali, as I am so commanded by Allah?” Fatima (ع) thereupon bowed her head in modesty. Umm Salamah narrates the following: “Fatima’s face Fatima bloomed with joy and her silence was so suggestive and conspicuous that the Holy Prophet stood up to shout: Allahu Akbar’ (Allah is great)! Fatima’s silence is her acceptance.”

On Friday, Thul Hijja 1, 2 A.H., which corresponded to May 25, 624 A.D. according to the Julian Christian calendar or to the 28th of May of the same year according to the Gregorian Christian calendar which is widely used in the text of this book, the marriage ceremony took place. All the Muhajirun (emigrants) and Ansar (supporters) of Medina assembled in the mosque while Imam `Ali was seated before the Holy Prophet with all the ceremonious modesty of a bridegroom.

The Holy Prophet first recited an eloquent sermon then declared: “I have been commanded by Allah to get Fatima wedded to `Ali, and so I do hereby solemnize the matrimony between `Ali and Fatima on a dower of four hundred mithqal of silver.” Then he asked Imam Ali, “Do you consent to it, O Ali? ” “Yes, I do, O Holy Prophet of Allah!” replied Imam Ali (ع).

Then the Holy Prophet raised his hands and supplicated thus: “O Lord! Bless both of them, sanctify their progeny and grant them the keys of Your beneficence, Your treasures of wisdom and genius; and let them be a source of blessing and peace to my umma.” Her children; Imam Hasan, Imam Hussain, Zainab and Umm Kulthum, are well-known for their piety, righteousness and generosity. Their strength of character and actions changed the course of history and fortified Islam which otherwise would have been lost to mankind.

As a wife, she was very devoted. She never asked Ali for anything in her entire life. As a mother, she cared for and brought up wonderful children; they have left their marks on the pages of world history which time and the plots of enemies of Ahl al-Bayt (ع) will never be able to erase.

After The Prophet’s Demise

قال ابن الجوزي (أبو الفرج عبد الرحمن بن أبي الحسن علي بن محمد القرشي التيمي البكري، الفقيه الحنبلي الحافظ المفسر الواعظ المؤرخ الأديب المعروف بابن الجوزي، رحمه الله رحمة واسعة، وأدخله فسيح جناته، فقيه حنبلي محدث ومؤرخ ومتكلم 510]هـ/1116م – 12 رمضان 592 هـ [ ولد وتوفي في بغداد) : روي عن علي (عليه السلام) قال: لما مات رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) جاءت فاطمة (عليها السلام) فأخذت قبضة من تراب القبر فوضعته على عينيها، فبكت وأنشأت تقول:

نفسي على زفراتها محبوسة يا ليتها خرجت مع الزفرات

لا خير بعدك في الحياة وإنما أبكي مخافة أن تطول حياتي

Ibn al-Jawzi, namely Abul-Faraj Abdul-Rahman ibn Abul-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Qarashi (or Quraishi, of Quraish tribe) al-Taymi al-Bakri, was a Hanbali faqih who knew the Holy Qur’an by heart, an orator, historian and a man of letters.

He was born in Baghdad in 510 A.H./1117 A.D. and died there on the 12th of the month of Ramadan of 592 A.H. which coincided with August 16, 1196 A.D. according to the Gregorian Christian calendar or the 9th of the same month and year according to the Julian calendar. May the Almighty shower him with His broad mercy and admit him into His spacious Paradise. He quotes Imam Ali (ع) saying that when the Messenger of Allah (ص) died, Fatima (ع) went to his gravesite, took a handful of its dust, put it on her eyes, wept and composed these verses of poetry:

My soul is confined with every sigh,
How I wish it departed as sighs depart.
No good is there in life after you so I
For fear my life will prolong do I cry.

Property Of Fadak

The Prophet (ص) taught Fatima ‎(‎ع‎) divine knowledge and endowed her with special intellectual brilliance, so much so that she realized the true meaning of faith, piety, and the reality of Islam. But Fatima ‎(‎ع‎) also was a witness to sorrow and a life of anguish from the very beginning of her life. She constantly saw how her revered father was mistreated by the unbelievers and later how she herself fell a victim to the same abuse, only this time by some “Muslims”. For more details about Fadak, refer to its proper place in this Glossary.

Digression: Jews Of Medina

One may wonder what brought those Jews to Medina to live among people whom they regarded as their inferior, polytheist pagans who regarded as profession other than trade to be beneath their status. There are two theories. One says that those Jews were motivated by the desire to be the first to believe in the new Arabian Prophet whose name was written in their religious books and whose mission was about to start, so they made a mass immigration to Medina.

Their high rabbis had told them that Medina would be the place where the new Prophet, Muhammad (ص), would be preaching the divine message. This view is supported by verses 40 – 103 of Surat al-Baqara (Chapter of the Cow, i.e. Ch. 2) which repeatedly admonishes the Israelites and strongly rebukes them for seeing the truth but turning away from it. According to this theory, those Jews with religious fervor had come from Jerusalem in particular and Greater Syria (Sham) in particular.

The other theory seeks an explanation from the historic events that took place in southern Arabia, particularly Yemen, concluding that those Jews had migrated from there seeking religious freedom and better economic conditions. This is how advocates of this theory reason:

The immigration of the majority of Jews into Yemen from abroad appears to have taken place about the beginning of the 2nd century A.D. But the province is mentioned neither by Josephus, better known as Yoseph ben (ibn, i.e. son of) Mattithyahu (37 – cir. 100 A.D.), a Romano-Jewish historian and hagiographer of priestly and royal ancestry, nor by the main books of the Jewish oral law, namely the Mishnah and Talmud.

According to some sources, the Jews of Yemen enjoyed prosperity until the 6th century A.D. The Himyarite King, Abu-Karib Asad Toban, converted to Judaism at the end of the 5th century, while laying siege to Medina. It is likely some of his soldiers preferred to stay there for economic and perhaps other reasons. His army had marched north to battle the Aksumites who had been fighting for control of Yemen for a hundred years. The Aksumites were only expelled from the region when the newly Jewish king rallied the Jews from all over Arabia, together with pagan allies. But this victory was short-lived.

In 518 A.D., the kingdom of Yemen was taken over by Zar’a Yousuf, who was of “royal descent” but was not the son of his predecessor, Ma’di Karib Ya’fur. Yousuf converted to Judaism and instigated wars to drive the Aksumite Ethiopians from Arabia. Zar’a Yousuf is chiefly known by his cognomen “Thu Nuwas”, in reference to his “curly hair.” The Jewish rule lasted till 525 A.D., only 85 years before the inception of the Islamic Prophetic mission.

Some historians, however, date it later, to 530, when Christians from the Aksumite Kingdom of Ethiopia defeated and killed Thu Nuwas, taking power in Yemen. According to a number of medieval historians, Thu Nuwas announced that he would persecute the Christians living in his kingdom, mostly in Najran, because Christian states had persecuted his fellow co-religionists (the Jews) in their realms. This persecution, which took place in the year 524 A.D., is blamed on one Dimnon in Najran, that is modern al-Ukhdud area of Saudi Arabia.

Any reader of the Holy Qur’an must have come across verse 4 of Surat al-Buruj (Chapter 85) of the Holy Qur’an which refers to أَصْحَابُ الأُخْدُودِ, fellows of the Ukhdud, which is imprecisely translated as “the ditch self-destructed” in some English translations of the Holy Qur’an. To the author of this book, who speaks Arabis as his mother tongue, my dear reader, “the ditch self-destructed” does not make much sense at all.

Actually, this “ukhdud” was a long ditch filled with firewood. It was lit and the believers were thrown into it if they refused to abandon their faith. Some ran away from this inferno, which may remind one of a similar situation which took place with Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) at the hands of Nimrud of 13th Century B.C. Assyria. The survivors, most likely Christians and Jews, fled up north in the direction of Medina which they made home. The Almighty in 85:4 condemns this massacre in the strongest of terms, and Christians and Jews ought to appreciate this fact.

According to some sources, after seizing the throne of the Himyarites, in 518 or 523 A.D., Thu Nuwas attacked the Aksumite (mainly Christian) garrison at Zafar, capturing them and burning their churches. He then moved against Najran, a Christian and Aksumite stronghold. After accepting the city’s capitulation, he massacred those inhabitants who would not renounce Christianity in this ukhdud incident. Estimates of the death toll from this event range up to 20,000 in some sources. So, believers in God, Christians and Jews, had reasons to go somewhere else where they would practice their religion freely while enjoying better business opportunities among Arabs who, at the time, were mostly nomads.

Khutba of Fatima Zahra (A.S.) Demanding Fadak

خطبة فاطمة الزهراء بنت النبي محمد في مسجد أبيها (ص) عند مطالبتها بفدك وميراثها من أبيها:

روى عبد الله بن الحسن باسناده عن آبائه ، أنه لما أجمع أبوبكر وعمر على منع فاطمة عليها السلام فدكا و بلغها ذلك لاثت خمارها على رأسها و اشتملت بجلبابها وأقبلت في لمةٍ من حفدتها ونساء قومها تطأ ذيولها، ما تخرم مشيتها مشية رسول الله ( ص )، حتى دخلت على أبي بكر وهو في حشد من المهاجرين والأنصار وغيرهم فنيطت دونها ملاءة فجلست ثم أنَت أنَةً أجهش القوم لها بالبكاء فأرتج المجلس ثم أمهلت هنيئة حتى إذا سكن نشيج القوم وهدأت فورتهم افتتحت الكلام بحمد الله و الثناء عليه والصلاة على رسوله فعاد القوم في بكائهم فلما أمسكوا عادت في كلامها فقالت عليها السلام:

الحمد لله على ما أنعم وله الشكر على ما ألهم والثناء بما قدم من عموم نعم ابتداها وسبوغ آلاء أسداها وتمام منن أولاها جم عن الإحصاء عددها ونأى عن الجزاء أمدها وتفاوت عن الإدراك أبدها وندبهم لاستزادتها بالشكر لاتصالها واستحمد إلى الخلائق بإجزالها وثنى بالندب إلى أمثالها وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له كلمة جعل الإخلاص تأويلها وضمن القلوب موصولها وأنار في التفكر معقولها الممتنع من الأبصار رؤيته ومن الألسن صفته ومن الأوهام كيفيته ابتدع الأشياء لا من شي‏ء كان قبلها وأنشأها بلا احتذاء أمثلة امتثلها كونها بقدرته وذرأها بمشيته من غير حاجة منه إلى تكوينها ولا فائدة له في تصويرها إلا تثبيتا لحكمته وتنبيها على طاعته وإظهارا لقدرته تعبدا لبريته وإعزازا لدعوته ثم جعل الثواب على طاعته ووضع العقاب على معصيته ذيادة لعباده من نقمته وحياشة لهم إلى جنته وأشهد أن أبي محمدا عبده ورسوله اختاره قبل أن أرسله وسماه قبل أن اجتباه واصطفاه قبل أن ابتعثه إذ الخلائق بالغيب مكنونة وبستر الأهاويل مصونة وبنهاية العدم مقرونة علما من الله تعالى بمآيل الأمور وإحاطة بحوادث الدهور ومعرفة بمواقع الأمور ابتعثه الله إتماما لأمره وعزيمة على إمضاء حكمه وإنفاذا لمقادير رحمته فرأى الأمم فرقا في أديانها عكفا على نيرانها عابدة لأوثانها منكرة لله مع عرفانها فأنار الله بأبي محمد ص ظلمها وكشف عن القلوب بهمها وجلى عن الأبصار غممها وقام في الناس بالهداية فأنقذهم من الغواية وبصرهم من العماية وهداهم إلى الدين القويم ودعاهم إلى الطريق المستقيم ثم قبضه الله إليه قبض رأفة واختيار ورغبة وإيثار فمحمد ( ص ) من تعب هذه الدار في راحة قد حف بالملائكة الأبرار ورضوان الرب الغفار ومجاورة الملك الجبار صلى الله على أبي نبيه وأمينه وخيرته من الخلق وصفيه والسلام عليه ورحمة الله وبركاته.

ثم التفتت إلى أهل المجلس وقالت : أنتم عباد الله نصب أمره ونهيه وحملة دينه ووحيه وأمناء الله على أنفسكم وبلغاءه إلى الأمم زعيم حق له فيكم وعهد قدمه إليكم وبقية استخلفها عليكم كتاب الله الناطق والقرآن الصادق والنور الساطع والضياء اللامع بينة بصائره منكشفة سرائره منجلية ظواهره مغتبطة به أشياعه قائدا إلى الرضوان اتباعه مؤد إلى النجاة استماعه به تنال حجج الله المنورة وعزائمه المفسرة ومحارمه المحذرة وبيناته الجالية وبراهينه الكافية وفضائله المندوبة ورخصه الموهوبة وشرائعه المكتوبة فجعل الله الإيمان تطهيرا لكم من الشرك والصلاة تنزيها لكم عن الكبر والزكاة تزكية للنفس ونماء في الرزق والصيام تثبيتا للإخلاص والحج تشييدا للدين والعدل تنسيقا للقلوب وطاعتنا نظاما للملة وإمامتنا أمانا للفرقة والجهاد عزا للإسلام والصبر معونة على استيجاب الأجر والأمر بالمعروف مصلحة للعامة وبر الوالدين وقاية من السخط وصلة الأرحام منسأة في العمر ومنماة للعدد والقصاص حقنا للدماء والوفاء بالنذر تعريضا للمغفرة وتوفية المكاييل والموازين تغييرا للبخس والنهي عن شرب الخمر تنزيها عن الرجس واجتناب القذف حجابا عن اللعنة وترك السرقة إيجابا للعفة وحرم الله الشرك إخلاصا له بالربوبية فاتقوا الله حق تقاته ولا تموتن إلا وأنتم مسلمون وأطيعوا الله فيما أمركم به ونهاكم عنه فإنه إنما يخشى الله من عباده العلماء.

ثم قالت: أيها الناس اعلموا أني فاطمة و أبي محمد ص أقول عودا وبدوا ولا أقول ما أقول غلطا ولا أفعل ما أفعل شططا ، لَقَدْ جاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ ما عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَؤُفٌ رَحِيمٌ ، فإن تعزوه وتعرفوه تجدوه أبي دون نسائكم وأخا ابن عمي دون رجالكم ، ولنعم المعزى إليه ص فبلغ الرسالة صادعا بالنذارة مائلا عن مدرجة المشركين ضاربا ثبجهم آخذا بأكظامهم داعيا إلى سبيل ربه بالحكمة والموعظة الحسنة يجف الأصنام وينكث الهام حتى انهزم الجمع وولوا الدبر حتى تفرى الليل عن صبحه وأسفر الحق عن محضه ونطق زعيم الدين وخرست شقاشق الشياطين وطاح وشيظ النفاق وانحلت عقد الكفر والشقاق وفهتم بكلمة الإخلاص في نفر من البيض الخماص وكنتم على شفا حفرة من النار مذقة الشارب ونهزة الطامع وقبسة العجلان وموطئ الأقدام تشربون الطرق وتقتاتون القد و الورق أذلة خاسئين تخافون أن يتخطفكم الناس من حولكم فأنقذكم الله تبارك وتعالى بمحمد ص بعد اللتيا واللتي وبعد أن مني ببهم الرجال وذؤبان العرب ومردة أهل الكتاب كلما أوقدوانارا للحرب أطفأها الله أو نجم قرن الشيطان أو فغرت فاغرة من المشركين قذف أخاه في لهواتها فلا ينكفئ حتى يطأ جناحها بأخمصه ويخمد لهبها بسيفه مكدودا في ذات الله مجتهدا في أمر الله قريبا من رسول الله سيدا في أولياء الله مشمرا ناصحا مجدا كادحا لا تأخذه في الله لومة لائم وأنتم في رفاهية من العيش وادعون فاكهون آمنون تتربصون بنا الدوائر وتتوكفون الأخبار وتنكصون عند النزال وتفرون من القتال. فلما اختار الله لنبيه دار أنبيائه ومأوى أصفيائه ظهر فيكم حسكة النفاق وسمل جلباب الدين ونطق كاظم الغاوين ونبغ خامل الأقلين وهدر فنيق المبطلين فخطر في عرصاتكم وأطلع الشيطان رأسه من مغرزه هاتفا بكم فألفاكم لدعوته مستجيبين وللعزة فيه ملاحظين ثم استنهضكم فوجدكم خفافا وأحمشكم فألفاكم غضابا فوسمتم غير إبلكم ووردتم غير مشربكم هذا والعهد قريب والكلم رحيب والجرح لما يندمل والرسول لما يقبر ابتدارا زعمتم خوف الفتنة ألا في الفتنة سقطوا وإن جهنم لمحيطة بالكافرين فهيهات منكم وكيف بكم وأنى تؤفكون وكتاب الله بين أظهركم أموره ظاهرة وأحكامه زاهرة وأعلامه باهرة وزواجره لائحة وأوامره واضحة وقد خلفتموه وراء ظهوركم أرغبة عنه تريدون أم بغيره تحكمون بئس للظالمين بدلا ومن يتبع غير الإسلام دينا فلن يقبل منه وهو في الآخرة من الخاسرين ثم لم تلبثوا إلا ريث أن تسكن نفرتها ويسلس قيادها ثم أخذتم تورون وقدتها وتهيجون جمرتها وتستجيبون لهتاف الشيطان الغوي وإطفاء أنوار الدين الجلي وإهمال سنن النبي الصفي تشربون حسوا في ارتغاء وتمشون لأهله وولده في الخمرة والضراء ويصير منكم على مثل حز المدى ووخز السنان في الحشا وأنتم الآن تزعمون أن لا إرث لنا ، أ فحكم الجاهلية تبغون ومن أحسن من الله حكما لقوم يوقنون أفلا تعلمون ، بلى قد تجلى لكم كالشمس الضاحية أني ابنته أيها المسلمون أأغلب على إرثي يا ابن أبي قحافة أفي كتاب الله ترث أباك ولا أرث أبي لقد جئت شيئا فريا أفعلى عمد تركتم كتاب الله ونبذتموه وراء ظهوركم إذ يقول” :وَوَرِثَ سُلَيْمانُ داوُد”َ وقال فيما اقتص من خبر يحيى بن زكريا إذ قال : “فَهَبْ لِي مِنْ لَدُنْكَ وَلِيًّا يَرِثُنِي وَ يَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ” وقال” : وَ أُولُوا الْأَرْحامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلى بِبَعْضٍ فِي كِتابِ اللَّهِ” وقال”:يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلادِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ “وقال” : إِنْ تَرَكَ خَيْراً الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوالِدَيْنِ وَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ”، وزعمتم أن لا حظوة لي ولا إرث من أبي ولا رحم بيننا أ فخصكم الله بآية أخرج أبي منها أم هل تقولون إن أهل ملتين لا يتوارثان أو لست أنا وأبي من أهل ملة واحدة أم أنتم أعلم بخصوص القرآن وعمومه من أبي وابن عمي فدونكها مخطومة مرحولة تلقاك يوم حشرك فنعم الحكم الله والزعيم محمد والموعد القيامة وعند الساعة يخسر المبطلون ولا ينفعكم إذ تندمون ولكل نبأ مستقر وسوف تعلمون من يأتيه عذاب يخزيه ويحل عليه عذاب مقيم.

ثم رمت بطرفها نحو الأنصار فقالت:

يا معشر النقيبة وأعضاد الملة وحضنة الإسلام، ما هذه الغميزة في حقي والسنة عن ظلامتي أما كان رسول الله أبي يقول المرء يحفظ في ولده سرعان ما أحدثتم وعجلان ذا إهالة ولكم طاقة بما أحاول وقوة على ما أطلب و أزاول أتقولون مات محمد ( ص ) فخطب جليل استوسع وهنه واستنهر فتقه وانفتق رتقه وأظلمت الأرض لغيبته وكسفت الشمس والقمر وانتثرت النجوم لمصيبته وأكدت الآمال وخشعت الجبال وأضيع الحريم وأزيلت الحرمة عند مماته، فتلك والله النازلة الكبرى والمصيبة العظمى لا مثلها نازلة ولا بائقة عاجلة أعلن بها كتاب الله جل ثناؤه في أفنيتكم وفي ممساكم ومصبحكم يهتف في أفنيتكم هتافا وصراخا وتلاوة وألحانا ولقبله ما حل بأنبياء الله ورسله حكم فصل وقضاء حتم “وَ ما مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ أَ فَإِنْ ماتَ أَوْ قُتِلَ انْقَلَبْتُمْ عَلى أَعْقابِكُمْ وَ مَنْ يَنْقَلِبْ عَلى عَقِبَيْهِ فَلَنْ يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئاً وَ سَيَجْزِي اللَّهُ الشَّاكِرِينَ . “إيها بني قيله أأهضم تراث أبي وأنتم بمرأى مني ومسمع ومنتدى ومجمع تلبسكم الدعوة وتشملكم الخبرة وأنتم ذوو العدد والعدة والأداة والقوة وعندكم السلاح والجنة توافيكم الدعوة فلا تجيبون وتأتيكم الصرخة فلا تغيثون؟ أنتم موصوفون بالكفاح معروفون بالخير والصلاح والنخبة التي انتخبت والخيرة التي اختيرت لنا أهل البيت قاتلتم العرب وتحملتم الكد والتعب وناطحتم الأمم كافحتم البهم لا نبرح أو تبرحون نأمركم فتأتمرون حتى إذا دارت بنا رحى الإسلام ودر حلب الأيام وخضعت ثغرة الشرك وسكنت فورة الإفك وخمدت نيران الكفر وهدأت دعوة الهرج واستوسق نظام الدين فأنى حزتم بعد البيان وأسررتم بعد الإعلان ونكصتم بعد الإقدام وأشركتم بعد الإيمان؛بؤسا لقوم نكثوا أيمانهم من بعد عهدهم وهموا بإخراج الرسول وهم بدءوكم أول مرة أ تخشونهم فالله أحق أن تخشوه إن كنتم مؤمنين ألا وقد أرى أن قد أخلدتم إلى الخفض وأبعدتم من هو أحق بالبسط والقبض وخلوتم بالدعة ونجوتم بالضيق من السعة فمججتم ما وعيتم ودسعتم الذي تسوغتم فإن تكفروا أنتم ومن في الأرض جميعا فإن الله لغني حميد ألا وقد قلت ما قلت هذا على معرفة مني بالجذلة التي خامرتكم والغدرة التي استشعرتها قلوبكم ولكنها فيضة النفس ونفثة الغيظ وخور القناة وبثة الصدر وتقدمة الحجة فدونكموها فاحتقبوها دبرة الظهر نقبة الخف باقية العار موسومة بغضب الجبار وشنار الأبد موصولة بنار الله الموقدة التي تطلع على الأفئدة ، فبعين الله ما تفعلون وسيعلم الذين ظلموا أي منقلب ينقلبون وأنا ابنة نذير لكم بين يدي عذاب شديد فاعملوا إنا عاملون و انتظروا إنا منتظرون.

Abullah son of Imam al-Hassan (ع) quotes his forefathers saying that Abu Bakr and ‘Umar decided to prevent Fatima (ع) from her Fadak property. When she came to know about it, she put her veil on her head, wrapped herself with her outer cloak and, accompanied by some of her relatives and men of her folks, stepping on her gown, her gait not differing from that of the Messenger of Allah (ص), went till she entered [the Mosque of the Prophet] where Abu Bakr was.

Abu Bakr was in the company of a crowd of the Muhajirun and Ansar and others. A curtain was placed behind which she sat and moaned. Hearing her thus moaning, everyone present burst in tears, so much so that the meeting place shook. She waited for a moment till the sobbing stopped and the fervor abated. She started her speech by praising Allah and lauding Him, sending blessings to His Messenger, whereupon people resumed their cries. When they stopped, she resumed her speech saying,

“Praise to Allah for that which He bestowed (us). We thank and laud Him for all that which He inspired and offered, for the abundant boons which He initiated, the perfect grants which He presented. Such boons are too many to compute, too vast to measure. Their limit is too distant to grasp. He commended them (to His beings) so they would gain more by being grateful for their continuity.

He ordained Himself praiseworthy by giving generously to His creatures. I testify that there is no God but Allah, the One without a partner, a statement which sincere devotion is its interpretation, the hearts guarantee its continuation, and in the minds and hearts is its perpetuation. He is the One Who cannot be perceived with vision, nor can He be described by tongues, nor can imagination comprehend how He is.

He originated things but not from anything that existed before them, created them without pre-existing examples. Rather, He created them with His might and spread them according to His will. He did so not for a need for which He created them, nor for a benefit (for Him) did He shape them, but to establish His wisdom, bring attention to His obedience, manifest His might, lead His creatures to humbly venerate Him and exalt His decrees. He then made the reward for obedience to Him and punishment for disobedience so as to protect His creatures from His Wrath and amass them into His Paradise.

“I also testify that my Father, Muhammad, is His servant and messenger whom He chose and prior to sending him when the [souls of all] beings were still concealed in that which was transcendental, protected from anything appalling, associated with termination and nonexistence. Allah the Exalted One knew that which was to follow, comprehended that which would come to pass and realized the place of every event.

Allah sent him (Muhammad) to perfect His commands, a resolution to accomplish His decree, and an implementation of the dictates of His Mercy. So he (Muhammad) found nations differing in their creeds, obsessed by their fires [Zoroastrians], worshipping their idols [Pagans], and denying Allah [atheists] despite their knowledge of Him.

Therefore, Allah illuminated their darkness with my Father, Muhammad, uncovered obscurity from their hearts, and cleared the clouds from their insights. He revealed guidance to the people. He delivered them from being led astray, taking them away from misguidance, showing them the right religion and inviting them to the Straight Path (as-Sirat al-Mustaqeem).

“Allah then chose to recall him mercifully, with love and preference. So, Muhammad is now in comfort, released from the burden of this world, surrounded angels of devotion, satisfied with the Merciful Lord and with being near the powerful King. So, peace of Allah with my Father, His Prophet, the trusted one, the one whom He chose from among His servants, His sincere friend, and peace and blessings of Allah with him.”

Fatima ‎(‎ع‎)‎ then turned to the crowd and said:

“Surely you (people) are Allah’s servants at His command and prohibition, bearers of His creed and revelation. You are the ones whom Allah entrusted to fare with your own selves, His messengers to the nations. Amongst you does He have the right authority, a covenant which He brought forth to you and an legacy which He left to guard you: The eloquent Book of Allah, the Qur’an of the truth, the brilliant light, the shining beam. Its insights are indisputable, its secrets are revealed, its indications are manifest and those who follow it are surely blessed.

(The Qur’an) leads its adherents to righteousness. Listening (and acting upon) it leads to salvation. Through it are the enlightening divine arguments achieved, His manifest determination acquired, His prohibited decrees avoided, His manifest evidence recognized, His convincing proofs made apparent, His permissions granted and His laws written.

So Allah made belief (in Islam) a purification for you from polytheism. He made prayers an exaltation for you from conceit, Zakat purification for the soul and a (cause of) growth in subsistence, fasting an implantation of devotion, pilgrimage a construction of the creed and justice (Adl) the harmony of the hearts. And He made obedience to us (Ahl al-Bayt) the management of the affairs of the nation and our leadership (Ahl al-Bayt) a safeguard from disunity.

He made jihad (struggle) a way for strengthening Islam and patience a helping course for deserving (divine) rewards. He made commending what is right (Amr Bil Ma’ruf) a cause for public welfare, kindness to parents a safeguard from (His) wrath, the maintaining of close ties with one’s kin a cause for a longer life and for multiplying the number of offspring, in-kind reprisal (qisas قصاص) to save lives, fulfillment of vows the earning of mercy, the completion of weights and measures a cause for avoiding neglecting the rights of others, forbidding drinking wines an exaltation from atrocity, avoiding slander a veil from curse, abandoning theft a reason for deserving chastity.

Allah has also prohibited polytheism so that one can devote himself to His Mastership. Therefore; Fear Allah as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islam; Obey Allah in that which He has commanded you to do and that which He has forbidden, for surely those truly fear among His servants, who have knowledge.’

“O People! Be informed that I am Fatima, and my father is Muhammad I say that repeatedly and initiate it continually; I say not what I say mistakenly, nor do I do what I do aimlessly. Now has come unto you an Apostle from amongst yourselves; It grieves him that you should perish; ardently anxious is he over you; To the believers he is most kind and merciful. Thus, if you identify and recognize him, you shall realize that he is my father and not the father of any of your women; the brother of my cousin (Ali ‎(‎ع‎)‎) rather than any of your men.

What an excellent identity he was, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his descendants Thus, he propagated the Message, by coming out openly with the warning, and while inclined away from the path of the polytheists, (whom he) struck their strength and seized their throats, while he invited (all) to the way of his Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching He destroyed idols, and defeated heroes, until their group fled and turned their backs. So night revealed its dawn; righteousness uncovered its genuineness; the voice of the religious authority spoke out loud; the evil discords were silenced.

The crown of hypocrisy was diminished; the tightening of infidelity and desertion were untied, So you spoke the statement of devotion amongst a band of starved ones; and you were on the edge of a hole of fire;(you were) the drink of the thirsty one; the opportunity of the desiring one; the fire brand of him who passes in haste; the step for feet; you used to drink from the water gathered on roads; eat jerked meat. (Lady Fatima (ع) was stating their lowly situation before Islam) You were despised outcasts always in fear of abduction from those around you.

Yet, Allah rescued you through my father, Muhammad after much ado, and after he was confronted by mighty men, the Arab beasts, and the demons of the people of the Book Who, whenever they ignited the fire of war, Allah extinguished it; and whenever the thorn of the devil appeared, or a mouth of the polytheists opened wide in defiance, he would strike its discords with his brother (Ali, (ع)), who comes not back until he treads its wing with the sole of his feet, and extinguishes its flames with his sword.

(Ali is) diligent in Allah’s affair, near to the Messenger of Allah, A master among Allah’s worshippers, setting to work briskly, sincere in his advice, earnest and exerting himself (in service to Islam); While you were calm, gay, and feeling safe in your comfortable lives, waiting for us to meet disasters, awaiting the spread of news, you fell back during every battle, and took to your heels at times of fighting.

Yet, When Allah chose His Prophet from the dwell of His prophets, and the abode of His sincere (servants); The thorns of hypocrisy appeared on you, the garment of faith became worn out, The misguided ignorant(s) spoke out, the sluggish ignorant came to the front and brayed. The he camel of the vain wiggled his tail in your courtyards and the your courtyards and the Devil stuck his head from its place of hiding and called upon you, he found you responsive to his invitation, and observing his deceits.

He then aroused you and found you quick (to answer him), and invited you to wrath, therefore; you branded other than your camels and proceeded to other than your drinking places. Then while the era of the Prophet was still near, the gash was still wide, the scar had not yet healed, and the Messenger was not yet buried. A (quick) undertaking as you claimed, aimed at preventing discord (trial), Surely, they have fallen into trial already! And indeed Hell surrounds the unbelievers.

How preposterous! What an idea! What a falsehood! For Allah’s Book is still amongst you, its affairs are apparent; its rules are manifest; its signs are dazzling; its restrictions are visible, and its commands are evident. Yet, indeed you have cast it behind your backs! What! Do you detest it? Or according to something else you wish to rule?

Evil would be the exchange for the wrongdoers! And if anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah), it never will it be accepted from him; And in the hereafter, he will be in the ranks of those who have lost. Surely you have not waited until its stampede seized, and it became obedient. You then started arousing its flames, instigating its coal, complying with the call of the misled devil, quenching the light of the manifest religion, and extinguished the light of the sincere Prophet.

You concealed sips on froth and proceeded towards his (the Prophet) kin and children in swamps and forests (meaning you plot against them in deceitful ways), but we are patient with you as if we are being notched with knives and stung by spearheads in our abdomens, Yet-now you claim that there is not inheritance for us! What! “Do they then seek after a judgment of (the Days of) ignorance? But How, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than Allah? Don’t you know? Yes, indeed it is obvious to you that I am his daughter. O Muslims! Will my inheritance be usurped?

O son of Abu Quhafa! Where is it in the Book of Allah that you inherit your father and I do not inherit mine? Surely you have come up with an unprecedented thing. Do you intentionally abandon the Book of Allah and cast it behind your back? Do you not read where it says: And Solomon (Sulayman) inherited David (Dawood)’? And when it narrates the story of Zacharias and says: `So give me an heir as from thyself (One that) will inherit me, and inherit the posterity of Jacob (Yaqoob)’

And: `But kindred by hood have prior rights against each other in the Book of Allah’ And: Allah (thus) directs you as regards your children’s (inheritance) to the male, a portion equal to that of two females’ And, If he leaves any goods, that he make a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable usage; this is due from the pious ones.’

You claim that I have no share! And that I do not inherit my father! What! Did Allah reveal a (Qur’anic) verse regarding you, from which He excluded my father? Or do you say: `These (Fatima and her father) are the people of two faiths, they do not inherit each other?!’ Are we not, me and my father, a people adhering to one faith? Or is it that you have more knowledge about the specifications and generalizations of the Qur’an than my father and my cousin (Imam Ali)?

So, here you are! Take it! (Ready with) its nose rope and saddled! But if shall encounter you on the Day of Gathering; (thus) what a wonderful judge is Allah, a claimant is Muhammad, and a day is the Day of Rising. At the time of the Hour shall the wrongdoers lose; and it shall not benefit you to regret (your actions) then! For every Message, there is a time limit; and soon shall ye know who will be inflicted with torture that will humiliate him, and who will be confronted by an everlasting punishment. (Fatima then turned towards the Ansar and said:) O you people of intellect! The strong supporters of the nation! And those who embraced Islam; What is this shortcoming in defending my right? And what is this slumber (while you see) injustice (being done toward me)? Did not the Messenger of Allah, my father, used to say: A man is upheld (remembered) by his children’? O how quick have you violated (his orders)?!

How soon have you plotted against us? But you still are capable (of helping me in) my attempt, and powerful (to help me) in that which I request and (in) my pursuit (of it). Or do you say: “Muhammad has perished;” Surely this is a great calamity; Its damage is excessive its injury is great, Its wound (is much too deep) to heal.

The Earth became darkened with his departure; the stars eclipsed for his calamity; hopes were seized; mountains submitted; sanctity was violated, and holiness was encroached upon after his death. Therefore, this, by Allah, is the great affliction, and the grand calamity; there is not an affliction-which is the like of it; nor will there be a sudden misfortune (as surprising as this).

The Book of Allah-excellent in praising him-announced in the courtyards (of your houses) in the place where you spend your evenings and mornings; A call, A cry, A recitation, and (verses) in order. It had previously came upon His (Allah’s) Prophets and Messengers; (for it is) A decree final, and a predestination fulfilled: “Muhammad is not but an Apostle: Many were the apostles that passed away before him. If he died or was slain, will ye then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.”

O you people of reflection; will I be usurped the inheritance of my father while you hear and see me?! (And while) You are sitting and gathered around me? You hear my call, and are included in the (news of the) affair? (But) You are numerous and well equipped! (You have) the means and the power, and the weapons and the shields.

Yet, the call reaches you but you do not answer; the cry comes to you but you do not come to help? (This) While you are characterized by struggle, known for goodness and welfare, the selected group (which was chosen), and the best ones chosen by the Messenger for us, Ahlul- Bayt. You fought the Arabs, bore with pain and exhaustion, struggled against the nations, and resisted their heroes. We were still, so were you in ordering you, and you in obeying us.

So that Islam became triumphant, the accomplishment of the days came near, the fort of polytheism was subjected, the outburst of was subjected, the outburst of infidelity calmed down, and the system of religion was well-ordered. Thus, (why have you) become confused after clearness? Conceal matters after announcing them? Do you thus turn on your heels after daring, associating (others with Allah) after believing? Will you not fight people who violated their oaths? Plotted to expel the Apostle and became aggressive by being the first (to assault) you? Do ye fear them? Nay, it is Allah Whom you should more justly fear, if you believe!

Now I see that you are inclined to easy living; having dismissed one who is more worthy of guardianship [referring to Ali (ع)]. You secluded yourselves with meekness and dismissed that which you accepted. Yet, if you show ingratitude, ye and all on earth together, yet, Allah free of all wants, worthy of all praise.

Surely I have said all that I have said with full knowledge that you intent to forsake me, and knowing the betrayal that your hearts sensed. But it is the state of soul, the effusion of fury, the dissemination of (what is) the chest and the presentation of the proof.

Hence, Here it is! Bag it (leadership and) put it on the back of an ill she camel, which has a thin hump with everlasting grace, marked with the wrath of Allah, and the blame of ever (which leads to) the Fire of (the wrath of Allah kindled (to a blaze), that which doth mount (right) to the hearts; For, Allah witnesses what you do, and soon will the unjust assailants know what vicissitudes their affairs will take! And I am the daughter of a warner (the Prophet) to you against a severe punishment. So, act and so will we, and wait, and we shall wait.’”

فأجابها أبو بكر وقال : يا بنت رسول الله لقد كان أبوك بالمؤمنين عطوفا كريما رءوفا رحيما وعلى الكافرين عذابا أليما وعقابا عظيما إن عزوناه وجدناه أباك دون النساء وأخا إلفك دون الأخلاء آثره على كل حميم وساعده في كل أمر جسيم لا يحبكم إلا سعيد ولا يبغضكم إلا شقي بعيد فأنتم عترة رسول الله الطيبون الخيرة المنتجبون على الخير أدلتنا وإلى الجنة مسالكنا. وأنت يا خيرة النساء وابنة خير الأنبياء صادقة في قولك سابقة في وفور عقلك غير مردودة عن حقك ولا مصدودة عن صدقك والله ما عدوت رأي رسول الله ولا عملت إلا بإذنه والرائد لا يكذب أهله وإني أشهد الله وكفى به شهيدا أني سمعت رسول الله ( ص ) يقول نحن معاشر الأنبياء لا نورث ذهبا و لا فضة و لا دارا و لا عقارا و إنما نورث الكتاب والحكمة والعلم والنبوة وما كان لنا من طعمة فلولي الأمر بعدنا أن يحكم فيه بحكمه وقد جعلنا ما حاولته في الكراع والسلاح يقاتل بها المسلمون ويجاهدون.

فقالت عليها السلام ، سبحان الله ما كان أبي رسول الله ( ص ) عن كتاب الله صادفا ولا لأحكامه مخالفا بل كان يتبع أثره ويقفو سوره؛ أفتجمعون إلى الغدر اعتلالا عليه بالزور وهذا بعد وفاته شبيه بما بغي له من الغوائل في حياته هذا كتاب الله حكما عدلا وناطقا فصلا يقول يَرِثُنِي وَ يَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ و يقول وَ وَرِثَ سُلَيْمانُ داوُدَ وبين عز وجل فيما وزع من الأقساط وشرع من الفرائض والميراث وأباح من حظ الذكران والإناث ما أزاح به علة المبطلين وأزال التظني والشبهات في الغابرين كلا بل سولت لكم أنفسكم أمرا فصبر جميل والله المستعان على ما تصفون . فقال أبو بكر: صدق الله ورسوله وصدقت ابنته معدن الحكمة وموطن الهدى والرحمة وركن الدين وعين الحجة لا أبعد صوابك ولا أنكر خطابك هؤلاء المسلمون بيني وبينك قلدوني ما تقلدت وباتفاق منهم أخذت ما أخذت غير مكابر ولا مستبد ولا مستأثر وهم بذلك شهود.

فالتفتت فاطمة عليها السلام إلى الناس و قالت:

معاشر المسلمين المسرعة إلى قيل الباطل المغضية على الفعل القبيح الخاسر أفلا تتدبرون القرآن أم على قلوب أقفالها كلا بل ران على قلوبكم ما أسأتم من أعمالكم فأخذ بسمعكم وأبصاركم ولبئس ما تأولتم وساء ما به أشرتم وشر ما منه اغتصبتم لتجدن والله محمله ثقيلا وغبه وبيلا إذا كشف لكم الغطاء وبان بإورائه الضراء وبدا لكم من ربكم ما لم تكونوا تحتسبون و خسر هنا لك المبطلون.

Abu Bakr responded to her by saying, “O daughter of the Messenger of Allah! Your father was always affectionate with the believers, generous, kind and merciful, and towards the unbelievers was a painful torment and a great punishment. Surely the Prophet is your father, not anyone else’s, the brother of your husband, not any other man’s; he surely preferred him over all his friends and (Ali) supported him in every important matter, no one loves you save the lucky and no one hates you save the wretched.

You are the blessed progeny of Allah’s Messenger, the chosen ones, our guides to goodness our path to Paradise, and you-the best of women-and the daughter of the best of prophets, truthful is your sayings, excelling in reason. You shall not be driven back from your right… But I surely heard your father saying: `We the, group of prophets do not inherit, nor are we inherited Yet, this is my situation and property, it is yours (if you wish); it shall not be concealed from you, nor will it be stored away from you.

You are the Mistress of your father’s nation, and the blessed tree of your descendants. Your property shall not be usurped against your will nor can your name be defamed. Your judgment shall be executed in all that which I possess. This, do you think that I violate your father’s (will)?”

Fatima then refuted Abu Bakr’s claim that the Prophet had stated that prophets cannot be inherited, and said: “Glory be to Allah!! Surely Allah’s Messenger did not abandon Allah’s Book nor did he violate His commands. Rather, he followed its decrees and adhered to its chapters. So do you unite with treachery justifying your acts with fabrications?

Indeed this—after his departure—is similar to the disasters which were plotted against him during his lifetime. But behold! This is Allah’s Book, a just judge and a decisive speaker, saying: `One that will (truly) inherit Me, and inherit the posterity of Yaqub,’ (19:6) and ‘And Sulaiman (Solomon) inherited Dawood (David).’ (27: 16) Thus, He (Glory be to Him) made clear that which He made share of all heirs, decreed from the amounts of inheritance, allowed for males and females, and eradicated all doubts and ambiguities (pertaining to this issue which existed with the) bygones.

Nay! But your minds have made up a tale (that may pass) with you, but (for me) patience is most fitting against that which ye assert; it is Allah (alone) whose help can be sought.” It is apparent that Abu Bakr chanced the mode with which he addressed Lady Fatima ‎(‎ع‎)‎ after delivering her speech. Listen to his following speech; which is his reply to Fatima’s just reported speech.

Abu Bakr said: “Surely Allah and His Apostle are truthful, and so has his (the Prophet’s) daughter told the truth. Surely you are the source of wisdom, the element of faith, and the sole authority. May Allah not refute your righteous argument, nor invalidate your decisive speech. But these are the Muslims between us-who have entrusted me with leadership, and it was according to their satisfaction that 1 received what 1 have. I am not being arrogant, autocratic, or selfish, and they are my witnesses.” Upon hearing Abu Bakr speak of the people’s support for him, Lady Fatima Zahra ‎(‎ع‎)‎ turned towards them and said:

“O people, who rush towards uttering falsehood and are indifferent to disgraceful and losing actions! Do you not earnestly seek to reflect upon the Qur’an, or are your hearts isolated with locks? But on your hearts is the stain of the evil, which you committed; it has seized your hearing and your sight, evil is that which you justified cursed is that which you reckoned, and wicked is what you have taken for an exchange!

You shall, by Allah, find bearing it (to be a great) burden, and its consequence disastrous. (That is) on the day when the cover is removed and appears to you what is behind it of wrath. When you will be confronted by Allah with that which you could never have expected, there will perish, there and then, those who stood on falsehoods.”

Although parts of Abu Bakr’s speeches cannot be verified with authentic evidence, and despite the fact that we have already mentioned part of the actual speech, which Abu Bakr delivered after Lady Fatima’s arguments, it appears certain that Abu Bakr was finally persuaded to submit Fadak to her. Nevertheless, when Fatima was leaving Abu Bakr’s house, ‘Umar suddenly appeared and exclaimed: “What is it that you hold in your hand?”

Abu Bakr replied: ‘A decree I have written for Fatima in which I assigned Fadak and her father’s inheritance to her.” ‘Umar then said: “With what will you spend on the Muslims if the Arabs decide to fight you?!”

وفي سيرة الحلبي ج 3 ص 391 :- أن عمر أخذ الكتاب فشقه.

According to p. 391, Vol. 3, of al-Halabi’s Seera book, ‘Umar [ibn al-Khattab] seized the decree and tore it to pieces…

ثم عطفت على قبر النبي ( ص ) و قالت:

قد كان بعدك انباء وهنبثة لوكنت شاهدها لم تكثر الخطب
انا فقدناك فقد الارض وابلها واختل قومك فاشهدهم فقد نكبوا

وقد رُزينا بما لم يرزه أحد من البرية لا عجم ولا عرب

ضاقت عليَّ بلادي بعدما رحبت وسيم سبطاك خسفاً فيه لي نصب

و كل أهل له قربى و منزلة عند الاله على الأدنين مقترب

أبدت رجال لنا نجوى صدورهم لما مضيت و حالت دونك الترب

تجهمتنا رجال وآستخف بنا اذ غبت عنا فنحن اليوم نغتصب

وكنت بدرا ونورا يستضاء به عليك ينزل من ذي العزة الكتب
قد كان جبريل بالآيات يؤنسنا فقد فقدت و كل الخير محتجب
فليت قبلك كان الموت صادفنا لما مضيت و حالت دونك الكثب
فسوف نبكيك ما عشنا وما بقيت من العيون بتهمال لها سكب

After you, reports and momentous chaotic events we found,
Had you witnessed them, calamities would not abound.
We missed you as sorely as earth would miss its rain,
Your folks lost balance, see how from the creed they did refrain,
We, like no others, have suffered affliction,
Unlike all Arabs, or others from among Allah’s creation.

My homeland is now narrow after its great expanse indeed,
Both your grandsons have been wronged, so my heart is grieved,
Every family has relatives and a place
With the Almighty Who is close to those of grace,
Certain men what their chests hid did they to us reveal,

When you went, and now you from our sights did a grave conceal,
Men assaulted and slighted us, when you became far away
So, now what rightfully belongs to us is being taken away.
You were the moon, your light showed us what we should heed,
Messages from the Exalted One were to you revealed.

With the Verses did Gabriel make our day,
Now you are gone, every good thing is kept away.
How we wish in our direction death did the Almighty guide

Before you left us, and you did the dunes from us hide.
We shall cry over you so long as our tears can pour,
So long as floods of tears can withstand and endure.

ـ من أشار إلى خطبة الصديقة فاطمة (عليها السلام( أو روى شيئاً منها نذكر بعضاً منهم على سبيل المثال لا حصر، وهم كالتالي:

1 ـ الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي (ت 175 هـ) في كتاب العين: 8 / 323 في كلمة اللمّة، وقال: وفي الحديث جاءت فاطمة (عليها السلام) إلى أبي بكر في لُميمة من حفدتها ونساء قومها.

2 ـ جار الله محمد بن عمر الزمخشري (ت 538 هـ).

في الفائق: 3 / 331 في مادة اللمة أيضاً قال: وفي حديث فاطمة (عليها السلام): إنّها خرجت في لمة من نسائها تتوطّأ ذيلها، حتى دخلت على أبي بكر.

3 ـ أبو الفرج عبد الرحمن بن علي بن الجوزي، (ت 597 هـ(.

في غريب الحديث: 2 / 333 وقال: وفي الحديث: أنّ فاطمة (عليها السلام) خرجت في لمة من نسائها إلى أبي بكر فعاتبته. أي في جماعة ; وقيل: من الثلاث إلى العشر.

4 ـ مجد الدين أبو السعادات ابن الأثير (ت 606 هـ(.

في النهاية في غريب الحديث والأثر: 4 / 273 وقال: في حديث فاطمة (عليها السلام): إنّها خرجت في لمة من نسائها تتوطّأ ذيلها، إلى أبي بكر فعاتبته.

5 ـ أبو الفضل جمال الدين بن منظور (ت 711 هـ).

في لسان العرب: 12 / 548 وقال: وفي حديث فاطمة (عليها السلام): إنّها خرجت في لمة من نسائها تتوطّأ ذيلها إلى أبي بكر فعاتبته. ذكرها في مادة لمم.

References to this speech by the Truthful One, Fatima, peace with her, including some who cited excerpts of it, include the following:

1. Al-Khalil ibn Ahmed al-Farahidi الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي (d. 175 A.H./792 A.D.) on p. 323, Vol. 8, of Kitab al-Ayn,

2. Jarallah Muhammad ibn ‘Umar al-Zamakhshari الزمخشري (d. 538 A.H./1144 A.D.) on p. 331, Vol. 3, of Al-Faiq;

3. Abul-Faraj Abdul-Rahman ibn Ali ibn al-Jawzi ابن الجوزي (d. 597 A.H./1201 A.D.),

4. Majd ad-Deen Abu al-Sa’adat Ibn al-Atheer ابن الأثير (d. 606 A.H./1210 A.D.) on p. 273, Vol. 4 of his book titled Al-Nihaya,

5. Abul-Fadl Jamal ad-Deen ibn Manzour ابن منظور (d. 711 A.H./1312 A.D.) on p. 548, Vol. 12 (old edition) of his lexicon titled Lisan al-Arab.

Fatima Further Oppressed

Throughout her life, Fatima (ع) never spoke to those who had oppressed her and deprived her of her rightful claims. She kept her grief to herself. During her sickness which preceded her death, she requested that her oppressors should be kept away even from attending her funeral. Her ill-wishers even resorted to physical violence.

Once the door of her house was pushed on her, and the child she was carrying was hurt and the baby-boy was stillborn. This incident took place, and it is very well documented by Shi’ite and Sunni historians and chroniclers, when ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab was urging, sometimes even beating, people to go to the Prophet’s Mosque to swear allegiance to his friend, Abu Bark.

‘Umar promoted Abu Bakr to the seat of “caliph”, being the very first person to swear allegiance to him after being convinced that it would not be long before he, too, would occupy the same seat. Fatima’s house was set on fire.

Having been mistreated and stricken with grief, which crossed all limits of forbearance and endurance, she expressed her sorrows in an elegy which she composed to mourn her father the Holy Prophet (ص). In that elegy, she makes a particular reference to her woeful plight saying, after having taken a handful of earth from her father’s grave, putting it on her eyes, crying and saying,

ماذا على من شمَّ تربةَ أحمد أن لا يشمّ َ مدى الزمان غواليا؟

صُبّت عليَّ مصائبٌ لو أنّها صُبّت على الأيّام صِرْنَ لياليا

قد كنت ذات حمى بظل محمد لا أختشي ضيماً و كان جماليا

فاليوم أخشع للذليل وأتقي ضيمي، و أدفع ظالمي بردائيا

فإذا بكت قمرية في ليلها شجناً على غصن بكيت صباحيا

فلأجعلن الحزن بعدك مؤنسي و لأجعلن الدمع فيك وشاحيا

What blame should be on one who smells Ahmed’s soil
That he shall never smell any precious person at all?
Calamities have been poured on me (like waters boil)
Were they poured on days, they would become nights.
In the shade of Muhammad, I enjoyed all protection

And he was my beauty, and I feared no oppression,
But now I surrender to the lowly and fear I am done
Injustice, pushing my oppressor with only my gown.
So, if a dove cries during its night, forlorn,
Out of grief on its twig, I cry in my morn.

So, I shall after you let grief be a companion for me,
And my tears that mourn you my cover they shall be.

On p. 218, Vol. 2, of al-Tabari’s Tarikh (Dar al-Amira for Printing, Publishing and Distribution, Beirut, Lebanon, 2005), it is stated that when Fatima could not get her inheritance, Fadak, from Abu Bakr, she boycotted him and never spoke to him till her death.

The death of the Apostle, affected her very much and she was very sad and grief-stricken and wept her heart out crying all the time. Unfortunately, after the death of the Prophet, the Government confiscated her famous land of Fadak. Fatima (ع) was pushed behind her home door (when they attacked Ali’s house and took him away in order to force him to accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr), so the fetus she was carrying, namely Muhsin, was subsequently aborted.

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered his servant, Qunfath, to set her house on fire, an incident which is immortalized by verses of poetry composed by the famous Egyptian poet Hafiz Ibrahim which is reproduced here but without English translation. The author has preferred not to translate it in order not to hurt the feelings of his Sunni brethren, especially non-Arabs:

On p. 220, Vol. 2, of al-Tabari’s Tarikh (Arabic text), it is stated that the Holy Prophet (ص) remained unburied for three days. His sacred body finally received the burial bath by his cousin and son-in-law, Fatima’s husband Ali (ع). Besides Ali (ع), those who attended the burial of the Prophet (ص) were: al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, his son al-Fadhl, Qutham ibn al-Abbas, Usamah ibn Zaid, and Shuqran, a freed slave of the Prophet (ص), according to the same page. According to Ibn Ishaq, Aws ibn Khawli, who had taken part in the Battle of Badr, earnestly requested Ali (ع) to let him assist in burying the Messenger of Allah (ص) which the Commander of the Faithful accepted (ع).

The tragedy of her father’s death and the unkindness of her father’s followers, were too much for the good, gentle and sensitive lady and she breathed her last on Jumda I 14, 11 A.H., exactly seventy-five days after the death of her revered father, the Holy Prophet of Islam. Grieved about the way she was treated by certain “sahaba” of the Prophet (ص), the confiscation of her property, Fadak, the aborting of her son, Musin, and the confiscation of the right to caliphate from her husband, Ali, were all too much for her, so much so that they eventually put an end to her life when she was in the prime of her life at the age of eighteen, although historians provide different dates, and was buried in Jannatul-Baqi’, Medina.

Fatima’s Death

On p. 218, Vol. 2, of al-Tabari’s Tarikh, al-Tabari says,

فدفنها علي ليلا، و لم يؤذن بها أبا بكر

“Ali buried her at night, and Abu Bakr did not call the athan (to announce her death).”

Fatima (ع) did not survive more than seventy-five days after the demise of her father. She breathed her last on the 14th Jumdi I, 11 A.H. Before her demise, she told her will to her husband, Imam Ali (ع), thus:

1. O Ali, you will personally perform my funeral rites.

2. Those who have displeased me should not be allowed to attend my funeral.

3. My corpse should be carried to the graveyard at night.

Thus, Imam Ali (ع), in compliance with her will, performed all the funeral rites and accompanied exclusively by her relatives and sons carried her at night to Jannatu’l-Baqi `, where she was laid to rest and her wishes fulfilled.

Having buried her, in the darkness of the night, her husband, the Commander of the Faithful Ali (ع) composed these verses of poetry:

هذي قصيدة الامام علي بن ابي طالب عندما كان عند قبر فاطمة الزهراء (ع):

ما لي وقفت على القبـورِ مُسلمـا قبر الحبيـب فلـم يـردّ جوابـي؟
أَحبيـب، ما لك لا تـرد جوابنـا أَنسيت بعـدي خلَّـة الأَحبـاب؟
قال الحبِيب: وكيف لي بجوابكم و أنـا رهيـن جنـادل و تراب؟
أَكل الترابُ محاسنـي فنسيتكُـم وحجبـت عن أَهلي وعن أَترابـي
فعليكم منـي السـلام تقطعـت منـي و منكـم خلـة الأحبـاب

Why did I stand at the graves to greet,
The tomb of the loved one, but it did not respond?
O loved one! Why do you not answer us?
Have you forgotten the friendship among loved ones?
The loved one said: How can I answer you

While I am held hostage by soil and stones?
Earth has eaten my beauties, so I forgot about you,
And I now am kept away from family and peers;
So, peace from me to you, the ties are now cut off
And so are the ties with loved ones.

On p. 136 of Dalaa’il al-Imama دلائل الامامة, we are told that those who attended Fatima’s burial in the darkness of the night were, besides her husband Ali (ع), none other than both her sons al-Hassan and al-Hussain (ع), her daughters Zainab and Umm Kulthum, her maid Fidda and Asmaa daughter of Umays. The author, as quoted on p. 92, Vol. 10 of the newly published edition of Bihar al-Anwar, adds the following:

و أصبح البقيع ليلة دفنت و فيه أربعون قبرا جددا، و ان المسلمين لما علموا وفاتها جاءوا الى البقيع فوجدوا فيه أربعين قبرا، فأشكل عليهم قبرها من سائر القبور، فضج الناس و لام بعضهم بعضا و قالوا: لم يخلف نبيكم فيكم الا بنتا واحدة تموت و تدفن و لم تحضروا وفاتها و الصلاة عليها و لا حتى تعرفوا قبرها.

ثم قال ولاة الأمر منهم: هاتم من نساء المسلمين من ينبش هذه القبور حتى نجدها فنصلي عليها و نزور قبرها. فبلغ ذلك أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليه، فخرج مغضبا قد احمرت عيناه و درت أوداجه و عليه قباه الأصفر الذي كان يلبسه في كل كريهة و هو متوكيء على سيفه ذي الفقار حتى ورد البقيع، فسار الى الناس النذير و قال: هذا علي بن أبي طالب قد أقبل كما ترونه يقسم بالله لئن حول من هذه القبور حجر ليضعن السيف على غابر الآخر.

فتلقاه عمر (بن الخطاب) و من معه من أصحابه و قال له: ما لك يا أبا الحسن؟ و الله لننبشن قبرها و لنصلين عليها. فضرب علي (ع) بيده الى جوامع ثوبه ( يعني ثوب عمر) فهزه، ثم ضرب به الأرض و قال: يا ابن السوداء! أما حقي (في الخلافة) فقد تركته مخافة أن يرتد الناس عن دينهم، و أما قبر فاطمة، فو الذي نفس علي بيده، لئن رمت و أصحابك شيئا من ذلك، لأسقين الأرض من دمائكم. فان شئت، فأعرض يا عمر.

فتلقاه أبو بكر فقال: يا أبا الحسن بحق رسول الله و بحق من (هو) فوق العرش الا خليت عنه، فانا غير فاعلين شيئا تكرهه. فتخلى عنه و تفرق الناس و لم يعودوا الى ذلك.

In the morning of the eve in which she (Fatima) was buried, al-Baqi’ was found to have forty new graves. When the Muslims came to know about her death, they went to al-Baqi’ where they found forty freshly built graves, so they were confused and could not identify her grave from among all of them. People fussed and blamed each other. They said, “Your Prophet left only one daughter among you. She dies and is buried while you do not attend her demise or perform the prayers for her or even know where her grave is.”

Those in authority among them said, “Bring from among the Muslims’ women those who would inter these graves till we find her, perform the prayers for her and visit her grave.” The report reached the Commander of the Faithful, Allah’s blessings with him, so he came out furious, his eyes reddened, his veins swollen and wearing his yellow outer garment which he always put on whenever there was trouble, leaning on his sword, Thul-Fiqar, till he reached al-Baqi’. A warner rushed to people to warn them saying, “Here is Ali ibn Abu Talib has come as you can see, swearing by Allah that if anyone moves a brick of these graves, he will kill each and every one of them.”

He was met by ‘Umar [ibn al-Khattab] and some of his companions and said, “What is wrong with you, O father of al-Hassan?! By Allah, we shall inter her grave, and we shall perform the [funeral] prayers for her.” Ali (ع) took hold of ‘Umar’s garment, shook him and threw him on the ground and said, “O son of the black woman! As regarding my right [to succeed the Prophet as the caliph], I have abandoned it for fear people might revert from their religion. As for Fatima’s grave, I swear by the One Who holds Ali’s soul in His hands that if you and your fellows want to do any such thing, I shall let the earth drink of your blood, all of you; so, if you want, stay away from it, O ‘Umar.”

Abu Bakr met him and said, “O father of al-Hassan! By the right of the Messenger of Allah (ص) and by the right of the One on the Arsh, leave him, for we shall not do anything which you dislike.” Ali (ع) left ‘Umar alone. People dispersed and did not make any further attempt. This incident shows the reader how Abu Bakr was blessed with a higher degree of wisdom than ‘Umar.

هذه الابيات من قصيدة فاطمة سيدة نساء العالمين للمرحوم الشيخ محسن أبو الحب الكبير أهديها الى كل الفاطميات:

فإن قــيل حـوّا قـلت فـاطم فـخرها أو قــيل مــريم قـلت فـاطم أفـضل

أفــهل لحـــوّا والـــد كــمحمّدٍ أم هــل لمــريم مــثل فـاطم أشـبل؟

كـــلّ لهــا عــند الولادة حــالة مــنها عــقول ذوي البــصائر تـذهل

هــذي لنــخلتها التـجت فـتساقطت رطــبا جــنيّاً فــهي مــنه تأكــلّ

وضعت بـعيسى وهـي غـير مـروعةٍ أنّــي وحــارسها السّـرىّ الأبسـل؟

وإلى الجـدار وصفحة البــاب التـجت بـنت النّــــبيّ فأسـقطت مـا تـحمل

سـقطت وأسـقطت الجــنين وحـولها مــن كــلّ ذي حسبٍ لئـيم جـــحفل

هـــذا يـــعنّفها وذاك يـــدعّها ويـــردها هـــذا وهـــذا يــركل

وأمــامها أســد الأســود يــقوده بــالحبل قــنفذ، هــل كـهذا مـعضل؟

ولســوف تأتـي فـي القـيامة فـاطم تشكـــو الى رب الســماء وتـــعول

ولتـــعرفنّ جـــنينها وحـــنينها بشكـــايةٍ مــنها السّــما تـــتزلزل:

ربّـــاه مــيراثـي وبــعلي حـقّه غــصبوا، وأبــنائي جــميعاً قـتّلوا

Following are verses of poetry in honor of Fatima, Head of the Women of Mankind, composed by the late Shaikh Muhsin Abu al-Hubb Senior presented to all ladies who descended from Fatima:

When they mention Eve, I say that Fatima is her pride,
Or if Mary is mentioned, I say that Fatima is superior.
Can anyone underestimate a father such as Muhammad?
Or does Mary have a lion cub more brave than Fatima’s?

Each had a status at her birth that puzzles sages’ minds:
This to her date tree resorted, so of fresh ripe dates she ate,
Giving birth to Jesus without fright, how so when the guard
Is the most brave night sojourner?

And to the wall and the door’s slab did this resort,
Prophet’s daughter, so she aborted what she was bearing.
She fell, and her fetus [Muhsin] fell with her, surrounded by
Every one of a mean descent and lowly birth:
This rogue rebukes her, that one reprimands her,

This one dismisses her, that one even kicks her…
Though before her was the lion of lions being led
By the rope…, so, is there a greater calamity?

Fatima will come on the Judgment Day to complain
To the Lord of the Heavens, and she will wail,
And you will know who her fetus was, why she wails
Why she presents a complaint from which the heavens shake:
“Lord! My inheritance and my husband’s right did they confiscate
“And, moreover, all my sons did they kill, O Lord!”

قصيدة للشاعر المسيحي عبد المسيح الأنطاكي يمدح فيها فاطمة الزهراء (ع) فالسيدة الزهراء (ع) قد شهد بفضلها المخالف والمؤالف لأنها سيدة نساء العالمين من الأولين والأخرين:

 

و إنها فزَّةٌ بين النساء فلا بنتُ لحواءَ تدنو من معاليها

ومن يُشعُّ شَعَاعَ الشمس جبهتُها و لا تُلالي إذا لاحت كلاليها

هي الجديرةُ بالكُفءِ الكريم لها مَن بالمفاخِرِ والعُليا يُحاكيها

والعُرْبُ تطلبُ أكفاءٌ تَزّوجُهُمْ بناتها، سّنيةُ تأبى تعدّيْها

وكُلُ عقدٍ بغير الكُفءِ تحسَبُهُ عاراً عليها لدى الأقرانِ يُخزيها

فمن يليقُ ببنتِ المُصطفى حسباً ومَن مِن العَرَب العَربَاء كافيها؟

ومَن يناسَب طه كي يُصاهَرهُ وهي المصاهرّةُ المسعودُ مُلقيَها؟

غيُر العليّ حبيب المصُطفى و له سَبَقُ الهدايةِ مُذ نادى مناديها

فانه بعدَ طه خيرُ من ولدَتْ قُريشَ مُنذَ برا الباري ذراريها

و أنه بطلُ الإسلامِ تعرفُهُ تلك الحروب التي أمسى مُجليّها

Here is a poem composed by the Christian poet Abdul-Maseeh al-Antaki (of Antioch city) in praise of Fatima al-Zahra (ع), for those who agree with our [religious] views and those who do not have all testified to Fatima’s distinction: She is the Mistress of all Women of Mankind from the early generations to the very last:

Among women, hers is a unique birth:
No other daughter of Eve comes to her distinctions close.
One from whose forehead the sun’s rays shine,
From her standing places glitter glows.

She is the peer of the honored one and only who
In his feats and supreme honors is her only match.
Arabs seek competent peers for daughters to marry
A tradition which they refuse to forgo.

Any marriage without a competent peer they regard
As a shame on them that debases them among peers.
Who can match in lineage the daughter of the Chosen one?
Who among the Arabs in honors matches her?
Who suits Taha (ص) to be his son-in-law,

A marriage tie that brings happiness to one who wins it
Other than Ali, the one loved by the Chosen One?
He accepted Guidance since the Messenger called for it.
Next to the Chosen One, he is the best of Quraish

Since the Almighty created its souls.
And he is the hero of Islam well known
By those wars that raised his status.

ما هو “مصحف فاطمة”؟

((وخلفت فاطمة عليها السلام مصحفاً، ما هو قرآن، ولكنه كلام من كلام الله، أنزله عليها، إملاء رسول الله، وخط على عليه السلام))(بحار الأنوار ج26 ص41 رواية73 باب1) ولذا سمِّيت فاطمة، فهي مظهر فاطر السموات والأرض. وحيث أن الملك المرسل من قبَله تعالى يحدِّثها، سمِّيت المحدَّثة، كما مرَّ أنه كان يخبرها عمّا سيحدث بعدها في ذريّتها من المصائب والبلايا، والأهم من ذلك ما ستكتسبها الذرية، من انتصارات عظيمة، ونجاح كبير في عصر الغيبة، ومن ثمّ ظهور ابنها المهدي المنتظر، عجلّ الله تعالى فرجه الشريف.

عليٌّ عليه السلام كاتبُ المصحـف

أنَّ الزهراء، سلام الله عليها، كانت تحسُّ بالملك، وتسمع صوته، ولم تكن تشاهده، فبمجرَّد أن حصل ذلك، شكت إلى أمير المؤمنين عليٍ، عليه السلام، حيث لم تكن تتوقَّع هذا الأمر بهذه الصورة المستمرَّة. اذن كان أمير المؤمنين عليٍ، عليه السلام صاحب فكرة كتابة المصحف، حيث يسمع صوت روح الأمين، فيكتب كلما يسمعه، إلى أن اجتمع في مصحف متكامل، وهو مصحف الزهراء عليها السلام. ولا يخفى عليك ، أنّه ليس من السهل كتابة ما يلقيه جبرئيل، بل كان ذلك ضمن العلوم الخاصَّة الإلهيَّة التي امتاز بها أمير المؤمنين، عليه السلام، فهو الذي كتب من قبل ما أملاه رسول الله عليه، وهو الذي جمعَ القرآن الكريم في المصحف الشريف كما هو ثابت في محلِّه.

محتـوى المصحـف

إنَّ المصحف يشتمل على أمورٍ كثيرةٍ تتلخص في كلمة واحدة وهي: استيعابه لجميع الحوادث الخطيرة الآتية، خصوصاً ما سيواجه ذريتُها، من المصائب والبلايا، وأيضاً الانتصارات، ويشتمل على أسماء جميع الملوك والحكّام إلى يوم القيامة، كما ورد في الحديث: ((ما من نبي و لا وصي ولا ملك إلا وفي مصحف فاطمة)) (بحار الأنوار ج47 ص32 رواية29 باب4). ويحتوى على أمور ترجع إلى شخص رسول الله، صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، وأيضاً يشتمل على وصيتها سلام الله عليها.

((ابن هاشم عن يحيى بن أبي عمران عن يونس عن رجل عن سليمان بن خالد قال : قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام.. فإن فيه وصية فاطمة عليها السلام..))(بحار الأنوار ج26 ص43 رواية76 باب1). ومن الطبيعي أنَّ الوصيَّة تشتمل على أمورٍ خاصَّة، تتعلَّق بحزنها عليها السلام، وبالمصائب الواردة عليها، من أعدائها، ليُنفِّذها ابنها الإمام الثاني عشر المهدي المنتظر، عجَّل الله تعالى فرجه الشريف، لأنَّه هو الإمام مبسوط اليد، الذي به يملأ الله الأرض قسطاً وعدلاً، كما مُلئت ظلماً وجوراً.

الأئِّمَّة عليهم السلام ومصحف فاطمة

كان الإمام الصادق عليه السلام، يؤكِّد دائماً على علوم أهل البيت عليهم السلام، ففي الحديث أنَّه كان يقول “أنَّ علمهم عليهم السلام غابر ومزبور ونكتٌ في القلوب ونقر في الأسماع” وأنَّهم يمتلكون “الجفر الأحمر، والجفر الأبيض، ومصحف فاطمة، والجامعة” فهم عليهم السلام رغم ارتباطهم وسماعهم صوت الملائكة ورغم تبعيّتهم لمصحف الإمام عليٍّ الذي هو الجامعة المشتملة على جميع الأحكام حتى أرش الخدش، ورغم معرفتهم بعلم الجفر الذي يشتمل على “علم ما يحتاج إليها الناس إلى يوم القيامة من حلال و حرام” إلاّ أنَّهم كانوا يعتمدون في فهم الحوادث الخطيرة على مصحف فاطمة عليها السلام كما ورد في الحديث “فنحن نتبع ما فيها فلا نعدوها” حيث يشتمل على الحوادث الخارجية جميعاً. وأيضاً أسماء الملوك إلى يوم القيامة، ففي الحديث: ((سئل عن محمد بن عبد الله بن الحسن فقال عليه السلام: ما من نبي ولا وصى ولا ملك إلاّ وهو في كتاب عندي. يعنى مصحف فاطمة، والله ما لمحمد بن عبدالله فيه اسم)) (بحار الأنوار ج47 ص32 رواية29 باب4).

لقد وصل المصحف إلى مستوى من الرفعة والسموّ بحيث صار مصدر سرورهم واستبشارهم، كما يستفاد من جملة قرت عينه في الحديث التالي: ((عن فضيل بن عثمان عن الحذاء قال: قال لي أبو جعفر عليه السلام يا أبا عبيدة كان عنده سيف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ودرعه ورايتُه المغلبة ومصحف فاطمة عليها السلام قرَّتْ عينُه)) (بحار الأنوار ج26 ص211 رواية22 باب16).

هل مصـحف فاطمة هو القرآن؟

إنَّ الكثير من الناس كانوا ولا زالوا يتصوَّرون أنَّ المصحف يشتمل على الآيات القرآنية الشريفة، أو أنَّ هناك قرآناً آخر عند الشيعة، كما يزعم بعضُ الجُهالُ من العامَّة. ولكنَّ الواقع هو خلاف ذلك، فإنَّ المصحف لا يشتمل حتى على آية واحدة من آيات القرآن الكريم، كما هو المستفاد من الأحاديث الكثيرة ،كما أنَّه ليس من قبيل القرآن ولا يشبهه من ناحية المحتوى أصلاً، فهو من مقولةٍ أخرى، فأحاديثنا صريحةٌ في ذلك فقد ورد في حديث: ((…عن على بن سعيد عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام… ما فيه آيةٌ من القرآن)) (بحار الأنوار ج26 ص42 رواية74 باب1).

وفي أحاديث أخر: ((…عن على بن الحسين عن أبى عبد الله عليه السلام .. عندنا مصحف فاطمة، أما والله ما فيه حرفٌ من القرآن))(بحار الأنوار ج26 ص46 رواية84 باب1).

– ((عبد الله بن جعفر عن موسى بن جعفر عن الوشاء عن أبي حمزة عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: مصحف فاطمة عليها السلام ما فيه شيء من كتاب الله..))(بحار الأنوار ج26 ص48 رواية89 باب1).

– ((عن عنبسة بن مصعب قال: كنا عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام.. ومصحف فاطمة أما والله ما أزعم أنه قرآن))(بحار الأنوار ج26 ص33 رواية50 باب1).

عند ملاحظة الأحاديث تعرف أنَّ الشبهة كانت منتشرة في عصر الأئمة عليهم السلام، ولهذا نراهم يستنكرون بكلِّ حزم وجدّ، ويتوسَّلون بالقسم لنفي ذلك،‎ غير أنَّ هناك حديثا يدلّ على أنّ المصحف:

((فيه مثل قرآنكم هذا ثلاث مرات))(بحار الأنوار ج26 ص38 رواية70 باب).

والظاهر أنّ المقصود هو من ناحية الكميّة وحجم المعلومات، لا من حيث المحتوى. ثمَّ لا يخفى عليك ما في كلمة قرآنكم من معانٍ فتأمَّل جيِّداً.

وأيضـاً:

المستفاد من أحاديث كثيرة أنَّ مصحف الزهراء عليها السلام ليس فيه شيء من الحلال والحرام أصلاً، ومن تلك الأحاديث قوله عليه السلام: ((أما إنَّه ليس من الحلال والحرام))(بحار الأنوار ج26 ص44 رواية77 باب1).

What Is Fatima’s Mushaf?

Fatima (ع) has left us a book behind her which is not a Qur’an but speech of the Almighty revealed to her, dictated by the Messenger of Allah (ص) and written down by Ali (ع), according to p. 41, Vol. 26 of Bihar al-Anwar. This is why she is named “Fatima”: the one who manifests the speech of the Fatir (Creator) of the heavens and earth.

Since the angel sent by Him speaks to her on behalf of the Almighty, she is called “muhaddatha المحدثة”, one spoken to. Also, the angel used to tell her the calamities and afflictions that will happen after her death to her progeny and, more importantly, the gains such progeny will achieve, the great victories and success during the Time of Occultation then during the time when her descendant, al-Mahdi, the Awaited One, may the Almighty speed up his holy ease, reappears.

Ali (ع) was the scribe of this mushaf. Al-Zahra used to sense the presence of the angel and hear his voice, but she did not see him. When this took place, she complained about it to the Commander of the Faithful Ali (ع) because she did not expect the matter would thus continue taking place.

Ali (ع), then, was the one who thought about writing the mushaf down since he heard the voice of the trusted angels, so he would write down what he heard till a complete mushaf was gathered which is al-Zahra’s mushaf, peace with her. You realize that it is not easy to write down what Gabriel was dictating; rather, this was among the special divine sciences which characterized the Commander of the Faithful (ع). He was the one who used to write down what the Messenger of Allah (ص) used to dictate to him, and he was the one who compiled together the Holy Qur’an as is confirmed.

Mushaf’s Contents

Fatima’s mushaf (book) contains many matters which can be summarized thus: It absorbs all upcoming serious events, especially the calamities and afflictions her progeny would face as well as the victories. It contains names of all kings and rulers till Judgment Day, according to this tradition which is recorded on p. 32, Vol. 47, of Bihar al-Anwar: “There is no prophet or wasi or king except that he is mentioned in Fatima’s mushaf.” It also contains matters relevant to the person of the Messenger of Allah (ص) as well as her own will (ع).

Ibn Hisham quotes Yahya ibn Abu Omran quoting other sources citing Abu Abdullah (Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq [ع]) saying that it contains the will of Fatima (ع) as stated on p. 43, Vol. 26, of Bihar al-Anwar. Naturally, the said will contains personal matters relevant to her grief and the predicaments she had to go through which her enemies caused so her descendant, the 12th Imam, the Awaited Mahdi, may Allah Almighty hasten his sacred ease, would carry it. This is so because the Mahdi is the one who will have the power to do so, who will be empowered by Allah to fill the earth with justice and equity after having been filled with injustice and iniquity.

The Imams (ع) And Fatima’s Mushaf

Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (ع) used to always emphasize the significance of the sciences of Ahl al-Bayt (ع). In one tradition, he used to say, “Their knowledge, peace with them, transcends time, comprehended and recorded, effective in the hearts, having an impact on those who hear it,” that they have الجفر الأحمر و الجفر الأبيض, the Red Wide Well (or pool) and the White one, Fatima’s mushaf and al-Jami’a.”

The red and white wells or pools referred to above are connotations of what is prohibitive and permissible in Islam. As for al-Jami’a , it is a collection of writings by the Commander of the Faithful Ali (ع) who held them so precious, he attached them to his sword, Thul-Fiqar. The contents of this Jami’a were recorded on animal’s skin and used to be inherited, as is the case with Fatima’s book, by the immediate family of the Prophet (ص), the Ahl al-Bayt (ع), who were subjected to untold trials and tribulations, persecution, imprisonment, poisoning, beheading and a host of injustices because of which these precious writings are now lost.

Ahl al-Bayt (ع) used to maintain connection with the angels and adhere to the contents of Imam Ali’s book, the Jami’a which contained all judicial rulings, including the penalty for one slightly scratching someone else’s cheek. Their knowledge included the “science of Jafr” which contains branches of knowledge relevant to what is permissible in Islam and what is not needed by people of all times till the Judgment Day.

But they used to depend in understanding serious events on Fatima’s book according to a tradition that says, “We follow its contents and do not go beyond them.” Such contents include all external [beyond the Household of the Prophet {ص}] incidents as well as the names of kings till the Day of Judgment. One tradition states that Muhammad son of Abdullah son of Imam al-Hassan (ع) was once asked and he said this in his answer: “The names of every prophet, wasi, king… is with me in a book,” meaning Fatima’s book, adding, “By Allah! It does not contain any mention of [Prophet] Muhammad ibn Abdullah,” according to p. 32, Vol. 47, of Bihar al-Anwar.

This mushaf reached a high level of loftiness, so much so that it became a source of happiness and optimism as is concluded from the phrase “apple of his eyes” in the following tradition: “Fudhail ibn Othman quotes al-Haththa saying that Imam Abu Ja’far [al-Baqir] (ع) said to him, ‘O Abu Ubaidah! He used to have the sword of the Messenger of Allah (ص), his shield, winning banner and Fatima’s mushaf, the apple of his eyes,” as indicated on p. 211, Vol. 26, of Bihar al-Anwar.

Is Fatima’s Mushaf The Holy Qur’an?

Most people used to, and still do, imagine that this mushaf contains the sacred Qur’anic verses, or that there is another Qur’an the Shi’as have, as ignorant commoners claim. But the reality is contrary to this:

This mushaf does not contain a single verse of the verses of the Holy Qur’an, as is understood from many traditions. Also, it is not similar to the Qur’an, nor is it like it from the standpoint of context at all. It tells quite a different tale. Traditions are clear in this regard: One tradition says, “… quoting Ali ibn Sa’eed citing Abu Abdullah (ع), ‘It does not contain any verse of the Qur’an,’” according to p. 42, Vol. 26, of Bihar al-Anwar.

In another tradition, it is indicated that “… from Ali son of al-Hussain who quotes Abu Abdullah (ع), ‘We have Fatima’s mushaf. By Allah! It does not contain a single syllable of the Qur’an,” as stated on p. 46, Vol. 26, of Bihar al-Anwar.

• Abdullah ibn Ja’far quotes Musa ibn Ja’far quoting al-Washa citing Abu Hamzah citing Abu Abdullah (ع) saying, ‘The mushaf of Fatima, peace with her, does not contain anything of the Book of Allah,’” according to p. 48, Vol. 26, of Bihar al-Anwar.

• Anbasah ibn Mus’ab has said, “We were in the company of Abu Abdullah (ع)… and Fatima’s mushaf; by Allah, he did not claim at all that it is a Qur’an,” as we read on p. 33, Vol. 26, of Bihar al-Anwar.

When examining these traditions, you will come to know that this confusion spread even during the time of the Imams (ع); therefore, we find them strictly and seriously denouncing it, swearing about denying it. There is one tradition which indicates that this mushaf “contains three times the like of your Qur’an,” according to p. 38, Vol. 26, of Bihar al-Anwar. It is quite obvious the comparison is with regard to the quantity and size of information, not from that of context. You can conclude that from the phrase “your Qur’an”; so, carefully ponder.

Many traditions conclude that the mushaf of al-Zahra (ع) does not contain anything about what is permissible and what is not; among such traditions is this statement (by Imam al-Sadiq, peace with him): “It is not about what is permissible and what is not,” as stated on p. 44, Vol. 26, of Bihar al-Anwar.

The list of the other Infallible Fourteen (ع) is as follows:

3. Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع)

4. Al-Hassan ibn Ali (ع)

5. Al-Hussain ibn Ali (ع)

6. Ali ibn al-Hussain (ع)

7. Muhammad ibn Ali al-Baqir (ع)

8. Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq (ع)

9. Musa ibn Ja’far al-Kadhim (ع)

10. Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (ع)

11. Muhammad ibn Ali al-Taqi (ع)

12. Ali ibn Muhammad al-Naqi (ع)

13. al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Askari (ع)

14. Muhammad ibn al-Hassan al-Mahdi (ع)

The author of this book, his family and ancestors up to about 150 years back are followers of the Shi’a Ithna-Asheri faith. Earlier than that, his ancestors were Sunnis, and the conversion of his first ancestor took place in al-Kadhimiyya city following a bloody incident which shook him.

Details of this incident and the persecution to which early Jibouri (author’s tribesmen) Shi’as were exposed, as well as the prejudice the author received from Sunnis in Atlanta, Georgia, where he was studying for his higher degree, are all recorded in his Memoirs. These Memoirs are available for all to read on an Internet web page by clicking on this link: http://www.scribd.com/yasinaljibouri/.

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The Third Imam, Husayn Ibn ‘Ali (as)

Second son of Fatima (sa) and ‘Ali (as) Husayn (as) was born on 3rd Shabaan, 4th year of Hijri (10.1.626 AD) When he was born the Holy Prophet was given the news of the birth of his 2nd grandson. He arrived at the house of his daughter, took the little baby in his arms, said the Azan and Iqamah in his ears.

People around the Prophet saw tears in his eyes. Fatimah asked what was the reason for this, he told her that this boy of hers will achieve martyrdom, but consoled her by adding that God will create a nation who will mourn Husayn till the Day of Judgement. Another famous saying of the Prophet at the same time became synonymous with the name of his grandson Husayn.

“Hussian-o-Minni wa Ana Minul Husayn”. Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn. One can explain this Hadith that Husayn, being the grand son of the Prophet was from him biologically. How a grandfather was from his grand son needs to be explained. Prophets of God speak spiritually rather than materially.

He was talking about Islam the Deen he was assigned by God to propagate God’s religion.. He was for Islam and his whole life was for Islam and its establishment on earth. Any break in this mission would subvert this mission which was the purpose of his creation.

The message of the Holy Prophet in this saying was that Husayn will, in some near future save this mission from destruction, hence the very purpose of his being will be saved by the sacrifice of his grandson. He was giving the news of a future occurrence. The story of Karbala’ unfolds.

Shah Usto Husayno Badshah Usto Husayn

Deen Uato Husayno Deen Panah Usto Husayn

Surdad, Nadad Dust Dur Dueste Yazid

Haqqa Ke Benate La Ilah Husto Husayn

Husayn is the king , indeed he is the king of kings,

Husayn is Deen and also the protector of Deen,

He gave his head but not his hand of allegiance in the hand of Yazid.

Indeed he was the founder (Like his grandfather) of the concept of One God.

This quartet of Shah Moinuddin Chishty Ajmeri is the exact meaning of the Hadith of “Husayno Minni” as mentioned above.Imam Husayn (as) has saved Islam from oblivion by offering his timely sacrifice to draw the line of demarcation between Truth and Falsehood, between good and evil, between Right and Wrong, that after this event in Karbala’ in 61 Hijri, no one inside or outside Islam dare to challenge the truth of the Holy Qur’an or try to subvert its meanings.

The story of Karbala’ begins with the birth of Husayn. The Holy Prophet had shown affection and love for his grandson as any grandfather should show,but there was something more positive and profound in this love.

Several times when Husayn entered the mosque as a small child the Holy Prophet will put him in his lap and tell his companions that this is Husayn, look at him and remember him. The Prophet’s insistence to remember Husayn shows that those who will forget this event will cause trouble in Islam.

It was just seven years of his life with his grandfather that the Holy Prophet died and soon after,Husayn’s mother Hazrat Fatima (sa) also died.. The next 25 years of his life in Madinah was with his father ‘Ali,his brother Hasan and many other brothers and sisters in the family. He grew up to be loved by the companions of the Holy Prophet.

During the period of 2nd Khilafat-e-Rasheda, Omar Ibne Khattab had always shown his love and respect for Husayn. Whenever Husayn entered the mosque, the Caliph would let him sit beside him and tell the companions to listen to what this young man says. They all valued his advice even at that young age.

His main activity in Madinah was to see that the people there know true Islam. He also managed the Trust set up by his father, to help the poor of the city by giving them food and many necessities of life. This was the true Islamic Welfare State in progress where every hungry mouth must have food, every naked person must have clothes and a shelter over his head.

Apart from administering the Trust set up by his father ‘Ali (as) , Husayn’s (as) main occupation during these 25 years in Madina was to teach the newly converted Muslims real Islam through the Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet.

He has performed Hajj 24 times during this period. He has also travelled to Yemen and most of the southern part of Hejaz and Najd. It is clear that he did not take any part in any of the expeditions by the Muslim forces under the directions of the three Kholafa.

After the death of the 3rd Caliph Osman, Husain’s father ‘Ali (as) was compelled by the people of Madinah overwhelmingly to take the reigns of power. ‘Ali (as) was reluctant and waited for three days before accepting the mantle of worldly power along with the authority of Imamah. (see life of Imam ‘Ali ) (as) .

Circumstances changed rapidly and within the first 6 month of ‘Ali’s Khilafat he had to leave Madinah for Basra and the battle of Jamal took place. We see that Husayn (as) who took no part in any battles before was a commander of ‘Ali’s forces in this first battle under his father’s leadership. Fighting began and ended in just one day, the battle was over, ‘Ali (as) performed funeral prayers on dead of both sides and buried them. Victors and vanquished were treated the same way.

Hazrat Ayesha was returned to Madina under the escort of her brother Muhammad Ibne Abibakr and 40 other men. She repented her participation in the battle all her life and never forgave Talha and Zubair who deceived her into this battle against ‘Ali (as).

She also realized that the true instigator of this battle was Muawiya under whose directions both Talha and Zubair started this whole adventure against the legitimately elected Caliph of Islam.

It was to destabilize the power base of Islam which was the Khilafat of ‘Ali (as) . When he did not succeed in this he began other tactics to do thsame. His bands of soldiers raided many parts of Iraq to burn and loot villages and destroy communities. ‘Ali (as) had no choice but to prepare for battle with Muawiya.

The battle of Siffin took place in the 2nd year of ‘Ali’ (as) Khilafat and Husayn (as) took full part. He was the commander of a garrison of 10,000 men along with his elder brother Hasan (as) and Muhammad (Hanafiya). It was ‘Ali’s practice to put his other son Muhammad-e-Hanafiya in the forefront and save the lives of these two grandsons of the Prophet. Nevertheless they took full part in these battles and fought with great bravery.

The 3rd battle during the Khilafat of ‘Ali (as) was the battle of Nehrwan fought against the Khawarij. This was also over in just one day with total defeat of Khawarij. ‘Ali (as) returned to Kufa and the main administration of the Islamic Welfare State began. Both brothers were the chief administrators of this Welfare State where they would seek out those poor adestitute within the state and provide them with the necessities of life.

While living with his father in Kufa, Husayn (as) visited various northern part of the Islamic State. One story goes to say that he visited Azerbaijan and part of Iran of that time.

Four years and 10 months of his father’s Khilafat were over quickly and his life with his elder brother Hasan (as) began in Madina. They still have the Trust state which was established by his father and both brothers administered it jointly.

Husayn (as) visited Makka and performed Hajj 9 times during the life time of his brother. After the martyrdom his brother Hasan (as) Husayn (as) took the mantle of Imamate and spiritual guidance of the Ummah. It is during this period that during one of his journeys to Makka for pilgrimage, his famous Duas (Supplication) of Arafah became famous.

This is a Dua which at the place of Arafat during the Hajj ritual that Imam recited and many pilgrims heard it and instantly memorised it as was the practice of the people of that time. Qur’an was also memorised in the same manner and many Sermons of Imam ‘Ali (as) were also memorised by people.

This Dua of Arafa became famous because of its deep insight into the realms of spirituality of Islam and its total dependence upon Allah’s Will and Power. This also gives insight into the reasons why Imam Husayn (as) left Makka for Karbala’. The following extract shows this feeling of the Imam towards reform of the Umma of his grandfather,

“O’God: you know that our struggle, moves, protests, and campaigns have not been, and are not, for the sake of rivalry and for obtaining power, neither are they for the sake of personal ambition nor for worldly ends, nor for the purpose of accumulating wealth and acquiring worldly advantages. “ Then what is their purpose? Imam states the purpose in these words.

“To establish the landmarks of Your Deen, to make reforms manifest in Your lands, so that the oppressed among Your servants may have security, and Your laws, which have been suspended and cast into neglect, may be reinstated.”

Further on in this same Dua the Imam calls upon his creator to show his total dependence upon Him.

O’He, upon whom I called when I was sick and He healed me, when naked, He clothed me, when hungry He fed me, when thirsty He gave me drink, when abased He exalted me, when ignorant, He gave me knowledge, when alone He provided companion, when away from home He returned me home, when empty handed He enriched me, when in need of help He helped me, when rich He took not from me”.

This kind of complete dependence upon God which is the Hallmark of Islamic teachings, was taught by the Imam to the people of Madinah and Makka, and the whole of Hejaz he visited..

Once a Bedouin asked Imam what is the best thing to do. Imam replied,” Belief in God”. He asked again, what is the best means of deliverance from destruction, Imam said, “Trust in God”. The man asked, what man’s ornament is, Imam replied,” knowledge associated with intelligence”.

The man insisted, if this be not available, what then, Imam replied,” Wealth accompanied with generosity”. What if this is out of reach, Imam said, “Poverty allied with patience”. What if this be not practicable?, Imam smiled and said, let the lightening consume the man to ashes. He then gave whatever money he had with him to fulfill his needs.

It was in the month of Rajab 60 Hijri that Moawiya died and his son Yazid succeeded his father on the throne of the Arab Empire with Damascus as its capital. Moawiya in his cleverness had told Yazid that” whatever you do when you become ruler after my death, do not ask Husayn Ibne ‘Ali for the oath of allegiance. Leave him where he is and you will have no problems.”

But Yazid in his arrogance of power did not bother to remember the wishes of his father. The very first thing he did was to write a letter to his Governor in Madinah informing him of his succession to the throne of his father and ordering him to take the Oath of Allegiance from Husayn Ibne ‘Ali (as).

Yazid realized that although he had full temporal power and is the virtual ruler of the Arab Empire, but he has no spiritual strength unless the grandson of the Prophet accepts him as such. People in Makka and Madinah would still regard Husayn (as) as their leader if only spiritually. Walid Ibne Ataba the Governor of Madinah receives this letter on 26th of Rajab 60 Hijri.

It was dusk and people were getting ready for Maghrib prayers. Walid immediately sent a messenger to Imam’s house and called him to the palace. Imam realized the seriousness of the situation and took his brothers and sons with him.

When they arrived at the gate of the palace Imam asked to stay outside and wait and only enter the gates when they hear Imam speak loudly. After these instructions Imam entered the palace. There was Walid sitting in his high chair with Marwan Ibnul Hakam by his side. Imam asked, “What is the matter that I was called at this hour”.

Walid mentioned Moawiya’s death, Yazid’s accession to the throne and the demand for Imam’s oath of allegiance. Imam replied that this is not the matter which can be done in the solitude of the palace, let this matter be brought before the people of Madinah next day in the mosque of the Prophet.

Imam stood up to leave while Marwan who was listening to this conversation did not like it and warned Walid that if he lets Husayn go he will loose him. Take the oath now or cut his head off as Yazid suggested in his letter. Imam after hearing this remark from Marwan told Walid loudly, ”A person like me would not give the oath of allegiance to a person like Yazid who had violated all tenets of Islam”. As Imam said these words loudly, his brothers and sons entered the palace and they all left safely.

Imam realized after consulting his friends and relatives that the life of peace for them in Madinah was over.

A question is asked sometimes, that why Imam Husayn (as) had not chosen to come to terms with Yazid as his elder brother, Imam Hasan (as) had done earlier while dealing with Moawiya. The question does not take into account the difference in the situations of the two brothers. ‘Ali (as) as the Imam left his elder son the mantle of Imamate which he at the time of his death passed it on to his brother Imam Husayn (as).

Imam Hasan (as) had also been installed as the Caliph. Finding that Moawiya had succeeded in,secrertly, sowing the seeds of discord and dissent among the Muslims, and had induced the feeling of great insecurity by undermining the machinery for the maintenance of peace, law and order, Imam Hasan (as) had deemed it expedient to enter into a treaty with him under which the Imam abdicated in favor of his adversary only the adjuncts of worldly power.

He did not dissociate himself from the spiritual primacy at all and continued to be the spiritual leader and the Imam of the Ummah.

Second point which is equally important is that when Yazid enforced his oath of allegiance over the Muslims, he insisted the people must swear allegiance to him which was totally different from the oath of allegiance of Kholafae Rashidoon. Previously they swore the oath of allegiance that the Khalifa should rule according to the verdict the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet.

But Yazid’s impertinence and arrogance made it an abject acknowledgement by the swearer that he was the slave (ABD) of Yazid who would dispose off his life, property and offspring in any manner deemed fit. One of the companions of the Prophet in Madinah named Ibn Rabia Al Aswad was prepared to swear allegiance to Yazid in accordance with the old practice but refused to swear allegiance in the form proposed. He was summarily executed. This happened inside the city of Madinah.

Where then was there any point in Imam Husayn (as) trying to make up to Yazid. This is where Imam Husayn (as) found himself placed in circumstances which were markedly different from those which confronted his elder brother who had abdicated only his temporal power in favor of Moawiya for the restoration of peace and order on the domain of Islam.

This kind of oath was entirely out of question for Imam Husayn (as) to accept. This would have totally degraded Islam as ordained in the Qur’an and as it was practiced by the Prophet of Islam. When settlement with Yazid being wholly out of question, the only alternative course open to Imam Husayn (as) was to oppose Yazid to save and protect the values of Islam from further degradation and to protect the faith itself from destructive inroads of pre-Islamic revivalism.

He could, however, have entertained no illusions about the kind of support he could hope to enlist for himself in any conflict with Yazid. The exceedingly unhappy position in which his elder brother had found himself through the treacherous withdrawal of the support given to him in his confrontation with Moawiya, Imam Husayn (as) therefore thought of entirely new strategy of war with Yazid, for in any case war it had to be.

He made no attempt to meet Yazid’s military might with his own martial strength. He built no hopes on numerical strength for the success of his cause which was entirely the cause of Islam and saving Islamic values. Imam decided to battle with Yazid on the spiritual plane, to oppose Yazid’s might with his nobility of character, confront power with powerlessness, meet multitudes with want of material support and defy oppression with suffering and martyrdom.

The proof of this line of thought became so clear in Imam Husayn’s sermons and letters to his brother Muhammad-e-Hanafiya when the Imam was leaving Makka for Iraq.

Imam, after leaving Madinah in the month of Rajab, stayed in Makka for about 5 months. It was in the month of Zilhijja 60 Hijri when he noticed that there were Yazid’s soldiers in Makka in the garb of Ahram to kill the Imam inside the Masjidul Haram. Imam changed the rituals of Hajj into Umra and decided to leave Makka. The date was 8th of Zilhijja 60 Hijri.

When people saw the Imam leaving before completing the Hajj they began to ask questions as to why he was leaving in such a hurry. Some doubted his motives, saying that he might be leaving Makka for Iraq to confront Yazid and take power into his hands. To quell these doubts he left a letter with his brother Muhammad-e-Hanafiya which clearly states his purpose of leaving Makka.

He wrote in the letter, “I have not come out to stir emotions, to play with discontentment, to provoke dissension or to spread oppression. I wish to bring the Umma back to the path of Amr-bil-Ma’arouf and Nahyi Unil Munker. I wish to bring them back to the path of my grandfather the Messenger of Allah and of my father ‘Ali Ibne Abi Talib”.

The momentous journey of Imam Husayn (as) begins from Makka towards an unknown destination which eventually ended at Karbala’.

The Map on the next page showing the Route of Imam Husayn (as) from Makka to Karbala’ was prepared by the writer of this book in 1984 and was presented at the Imam Husayn Seminar organized by the Muhammadi Trust. This map has been regarded as a pioneering effort and a land mark in Islamic history.

The journey which began from Makka on the 8th of Zilhijja 60 Hijri ended in Karbala’ on 2nd of Muharram 61 Hijiri and took about 22 days in all. Imam stopped at 14 places on his way to Karbala’. He met various people and delivered various sermons. What the Imam talked about to these people he met and said in his sermons at various places reflects the true motives he had in his mind.

The names of these places Imam passed were mentioned in history books but their exact locations were not traceable in modern geographical maps. After searching in the archives of the British Museum Library a map of 9th Century Hijri was found in which all these names were clearly shown.

The reader will see in the following pages the exact map of Hejaz and Iraq of that time and the exact route the Imam and his Caravan took in 60 Hijiri.

Map of Hejaz and Iraq showing the Route of Imam Husayn from Makka to Karbala’.

There were 14 places in all where the Imam was known to have passed during this journey.

The first place was called Saffah. Here the Imam stayed for the night. The next morning when he was preparing to leave for his next Manzil that he met the famous poet Farazdaq who was coming from Iraq and was going to Makka for pilgrimage.

When he learnt that Imam was proceeding for Iraq he tried to persuade him not to go there. Imam asked Farazdaq about the conditions in Kufa and the poet replied,” People’s hearts are with you but their swords are against you.” Imam told him, “Allah does what he wishes, I leave it to Him who proposes the just cause”. Farazdaq left the place for Makka and Imam’s caravan proceeded towards its next Manzil. The 2nd Manzil was Dhatul – Irq.

Here the Imam stayed the night. Here he met Abdullah Ibn Jaafar who was Imam’s cousin and husband of his sister Hazrat Zainab. Abdullah brought his two sons Aun and Muhammad to accompany the Imam. Abdullah also tried to persuade the Imam to postpone his journey and return to Madina.

But Imam replied,” my destiny is in the hands of Allah” These words which mention his destiny were repeated at many places during this journey and clearly indicate that he had a mission in his mind and he was proceeding towards that mission without fail.

The 3rd stage in the Imam’s journey was the small town called Batn-ur-Rumma. From here the Imam sent a letter to one of his friends in Kufa asking about the situation there. Qais Ibn Mushahir took the letter for the Imam. He also met Abdullah Ibn Mutee who was also coming from the troubled land of Iraq.

He also tried to persuade the Imam not to proceed any further. He said that Kufans were not faithful to anyone -” Al Kufi La Yufi “- they could not be trusted. But Imam continued with his fateful journey with the same words that his destiny is in the hands of Allah.

The 4th Stage of Imam’s journey took him to Zurud. This was a small town just over the hills of Hejaz separating from the province of Najd. From here the mountains change into arid desert. At this place Imam met Zohair Ibne Qain. Zohair, until that time, was not the follower of Ahlul-bayt.

He was undecided and considered himself as a person in middle not able to decide which side was the right one. Imam saw Zohair’s tent pitched in the distant and sent his emissary with a note. Zohair read the note, realized for the first time in his life that time for decision to choose the right path has arrived. Something happened to him inside that has changed his entire life.

What was written in the note is not clear, but Zohair told his friends to take his wife and children back to his tribal lands, and he himself set out to join the Imam and his caravan.

Here it is important to mention that when the Imam was leaving Makka he was trying to persuade the hordes of people who wanted to come out with him, to go back to their homes.. Imam was telling them that there is no reward of worldly goods at the end of the journey. But at the same time he wrote letters to some people inviting them to accompany him to the end of his journey.

One of them was Zohair as mentioned above. Imam wrote another letter to his childhood friend Habib Ibn Mazahir al -Asadi in Kufa inviting to join him in his journey of destiny. Habib was an old companion of the Prophet, was much o then the Imam. Some historians mention Habib’s age at 82.

Another important point worth mentioning here is that these additional people invited by the Imam were each from different tribes of Arabia. Out of total number of 72 male warriors with the Imam, 18 were from his own family, all descendants of Abu Talib. But the rest of the martyrs were from all places and all creeds, almost from all Islamic lands of that time.

There were men from Sham (Syria), from Jaba el Amul (Lebanon), from Armenia, from Azerbaijan, from Yemen, Abyssinia and Egypt. It appears that Imam was taking special care that whoever is martyred with him on the Day of Ashura comes from different tribes and different lands, different culture and creed so that the message reaches all corners of the Islamic lands through their relatives and friends.

The 5th stage of Imam’s journey was a small town called Zabala. Here the Imam learnt from two tribesmen coming from Kufa, about the death of Hazrat Muslim Ibn Aqeel. Imam uttered the words,”InnLillahe wa Inna Ilaihe Rajeoon”, loudly that all around him hear these words and know that something momentous has happened.

When all his companions gathered around him he said,”Indallah Nahtasib Unfosana”, which means that before God we all are accountable to our actions and deeds”. Asadi Tribesmen tried to dissuade the Imam from proceeding any further, but to no avail. He told his companions of the death of his cousin Hazrat Muslim.

In a very touching way he told Hazrat Muslim’s 4 year daughter of the death of his father. He called her, put her on his lap and gave her a pair of ear rings to put on. She asked why? then she replied herself, it looks like that her father has died and that she is an orphan now. Imam hugged her, consoled her and told her that he will look after her in place of her father.

There was a commotion inside the ladies camp as they all realized that Kufa cannot be their destiny any longer. They also learnt that with Hazrat Muslim, his two small children and his friend Hani were also killed along with many friends of Ahlul Bayt.

Hoards of tribesmen who were still with the Imam’s party left him as they all realized for sure that there was not going to be a war for victory over Yazid but the purpose was something else. By this 5th stage only about 50 people were left with the Imam and many of them were women and children.

Imam left Zabala and arrived at Batn-e-Aqiq at his 6th Manzil. Here the Imam met a man from the Tribe of Akrama who told him that Kufa was not a friendly town, that Yazid’s army has surrounded this garrison town, no one was allowed to leave or enter the town. But Imam carried on toward his destiny.

The 7th Manzil was Sorat. Imam stayed the night here and in the morning after Fajr prayer he asked his companions to store as much as water as possible in all possible containers and sheep skins they had. The Wells were underground, and the Imam’s companions filled all possible containers, jars, sheepskins with water.

The next day they arrived at a place called Sharaf. While the Imam was passing from this valley that one of his companions called out that he could see the approach of any army through the dust storm. Imam asked for a safe place, preferably a hill at their back. A guide took them near a hill where Imam asked everyone to dismount while kept the hill at their back. The name of the place was Zuhasm. It was here that Imam met Hur’s army of 1000 men.

They were coming from Kufa and appeared to be without water for sometime. Imam asked his companions to give them water in spite of the fact that they were hostile to Imam’s party. Everyone drank to their fill, even horses and camels drank. One soldier was so thirsty that he was unable to drink the water himself and the Imam went to him and poured water in his mouth.

Hurr who was the leader of that brigade from Kufa came to the Imam and wanted to get hold of the reins of his horse to which Imam replied not to be impertinent. Hur then refrained from doing that, but told the Imam he will take him to Kufa under escort to which Imam did not agree.

While they were discussing these matters that the time for the Zohr arrived and all of them, friends and enemy alike stood behind the Imam to complete their prayers. After the prayers Imam told Hurr and his soldiers that he had received many letters from Kufa inviting him to go there as an Imam and guide in all matters religious or secular. The actual words of Imam’s Khutba as mentioned by Tabari is as follows.

“ O’people of Kufa, you sent me delegations and wrote me letters that you had no Imam and that I should come to unite you and lead you in the way of God. You replied that we Ahlul Bayt are more qualified to govern your affairs than those who claim things to which they had no rights and act unjustly., But if you have changed your mind, have become ignorant of our Rights and have forgotten your promises, than I shall turn back”.

But the Imam and his companions were denied by Hur’s soldiers to turn back. Imam did not wish to go to Kufa now, and Hur’s army did not want them to return to Madina. So a compromise was reached by both parties to bye- pass Kufa and turn towards north. Imam and his party was leading and the Hur’s army was behind them. In two days journey they arrived at a place called Baiza.

Baiza was the 10th Manzil. At Baiza Imam delivered his most memorable sermon. History recorded this sermon fully. The words of this sermon clearly indicate the very purpose of the Imam for leaving Makka and his reasons of opposing the oath of allegiance to Yazid.He said,

O’People,The Prophet of Islam has said that if a believer sees a tyrannical ruler transgressing against Allah and his Messenger and oppressing people, but does nothing by word or action to change the situation, then it will be just for God to place him where he deservingly belongs.

Do you not see to what low level the affairs have come to.., do you not observe that truth has not adhered and falsehood has no limits. And as for me, I look upon death but a means of attaining martyrdom. I consider life among the transgressors an agony and an affliction”.

This Khutba of the Imam at Baiza is a landmark in history. This was 60 Hijri, about 681 AD. Twelve hundred years later in Gettesburg Abraham Linclon delivered a speech in which he said,
“To suffer in silence while they should protest makes cowards of men”. These words of Lincoln reflect exactly what Imam said some over 1200 years ago that oppressors and transgressors from the true path of justice will emerge all the time.

If there remains no one on earth to object over their transgressions that they will go unchecked. One should always point out to these tyrants of the Right path of justice. This is the lesson we should all learn from Imam Husayn (as).

The next Manzil was Uzaibul Hajanat. Here Imam stayed away from the escorting army of Hur. He met Trimmah bin Adi. After having known about the Kufan abandonment of his envoy Hazrat Muslim, it became clear that Imam had no hope of support or even survival in Kufa.

Nevertheless, he refused an offer of safety extended to him by Trimmah bin Adi. Ibn Adi was the leader of a powerful Tribe of Adi in the area. He pleaded the Imam to accept his offer of 20,000 armed soldiers from his Tribe to help him if he wishes to go to Kufa to fight with the army of Yazid.

Adi even offered the Imam and his small entourage to a hideout in the Tribal hills away from Kufa. But Imam rejected all such offers of safety and indulgence in war.Imam replied to Ibn Adi,”Allah will bless you and your people for your good intentions. I cannot go from my word.Things are destined”.

It is clear from this reply that the Imam was fully aware of the impending dangers he and his family and friends would face if he continues with his journey without any help from outside forces. He had a certain strategy and plan in his mind to bring about a revolution in the conscience of the Muslim Ummah.

He did not mobilise military support which he could easily have mustered in Hedjaz, nor did he try to exploit whatever physical strength was available to him. On the othand he was discouraging any such suggestions of an army to fight physically.

Imam’s twelvth Manzil was Qasre- Bani Maqatil. It was evident here that Kufa was no more his destination. As Hur did not want him to leave for anywhere else, a compromise was reached and they bye passed Kufa and took a new route. Resting in the heat of the afternoon, Imam uttered a sentence which is said in circumstances when someone hears of death.

His elder son ‘Ali Akber came forward and enquired about this sentence. Imam replied that while he was half a sleep he saw in his dream that some one was shouting loudly that this caravan was destined towards death. ‘Ali Akber asked, are we not on the Right Path.

An unusual question so it seems. But when the Imam replied that they were indeed on the Right Path, his son’s reply was again typical of this family of the Prophet. Father, when we are on the Right Path,” we have no worries whether death takes us or we fall upon death”.

The young son of the Imam was satisfied as long as their Paths were Right. Death meant nto them for they were fully aware that death of this kind trans forms into the glory of martyrdom.

Their Thirteenth Manzil was Nainawah. At this place a messenger from Ibn Ziad the Governor of Kufa came to meet the army of Hur and told them not to leave the Imam and his party under any circumstances. The battered Caravan passed through Ghaziriyah and arrived at a place by the river Banks of the Euphretes.

Imam asked the name of this place and he was told the name “KARBALA’”. Imam replied, this is the place of Kerbin-wa-bala, i.e. the place of torture and pain. Let us stop here, Imam ordered to dismount. We have reached our destination. Tents were pitched near the River Bank. The date was 2nd of Muharram 61 Hijiri (3rd October 681 AD).

Hurr’s soldiers surrounded the Imam’s camp. but no one knew what was going to happen until two days later on the 4th of Muharram that another contingent of 4000 men arrived from Kufa. The next day Shimr arrived with another 10,000 men to fight an army of about 40 people, among them were men of over 80 and children of 13 and 11 and even a 6 month old baby, the youngest son of the Imam who was only a month old when Imam left Madina in the Month of Rajab 5 months ago.

Shimr ordered the Imam and his entourage to leave the River Bank and pitch their tents away from it. Imam’s brother Abbas and others refused,but Imam told them to move the tents. The tents were moved about 200 yards away from the River Bank and the river was immediately occupied by the soldiers of Yazid newly arrived from Kufa.

Next day 7th, All water supply was stopped for the Imam’s party and soon the cry of thirst heard from the children in the camp. ~Whatever water they would have stored was finished within a day and by the 8th there was no water left in the camp. In the scorching heat of the desert even a few hours without water was impossible yet for three days these people were without water.

On the afternoon of the 9th, Yazid’s army moved forward in a formation of attack. Imam was informed and he sent Abbas and ‘Ali Akber to enquire about this. The reply was that orders were from Kufa to commence fighting and finish off with the family of the Prophet. Imam asked them to give them a stay of one night for they all wished to spend their last night in meditation and prayers to God.

The night was dark and horrible, flickering lights from the Camp of the Imam was showing few people busy in prayers. The sound of their prayers in unison was coming out of the camp as if Honey bees were busy to build their nest. Whereas on the enemy side music and dancing had gone on all night. Many soldiers from Yazid’s army saw this difference and realized in awe who was on the path of God and who was not.

Some soldiers slipped away from Yazid’s camp towards the Imam’s camp knowing fully well that if fighting started the next morning they would surely perish. About 30 such people moved to Imam’s camp. Imam held a meeting of his battered and thirsty companions and told them that the enemy wanted only his life. They have no animosity with anyone else.

When no one moved Imam asked that the candles should be put off, in case some of them were ashamed to show themselves running away from the Imam. The Imam also said that he was taking away the burden of the Oath of allegiance from them and made them free to go. “Take few of my relations with them” But when the candles were lit again, all were there, no one moved.

One of the older companions named Muslim Ibn Awsajah came forward and declared that they were all one solid rock to fight for the Imam. If they were killed 70 times and then were made alive again they would still prefer to achieve martyrdom with the Imam rather than live with the oppressive rulers like Yazid.

Morning appeared and before Sunrise ‘Ali Akber gave the Azan and all of them completed their morning prayers behind their Imam.

Imam made his brother Abbas as the flag bearer of the tiny army of 70 persons in all when all of a sudden two more soldiers defected from Yazid’s army. One was Hur who was the leader of the contingent who brought the Imam’s party to Karbala’ and also his son. Both of them arrived with their hands tied to apologize to the Imam for what they had done and asked his permission to fight for them and become first martyrs.

Imam did not give orders to commence fighting until arrows came from the enemy camp. Then Hur went out to fight. Overwhelmed by the numbers on the other side, he soon died. His son went and he also died.

Then one by one each companion of the Imam went and died until Zohr time when Saeed ibn Abullah al Bijilly came forward and informed the Imam that it was prayer time for Zohr. Battle was raging, arrows were coming towards the Imam’s camp, how could they have formed lines for prayers.

But they stood in single foil to perform their last prayers while two companions of the Imam Saeed and Zohair stood in front of this line to hold back all the arrows that were coming towards them. Once the Imam finished the last words of the prayers these two soldiers died of exhaustion. The Last of the companions of the Imam died and only the relatives remained.

First to go was Imam’s son ‘Ali Akber who fought bravely but thirst for three days was the most important factor in the fall of these martyrs. He was also killed and then Imam’s nephew Qasim went and was killed. Then four of his brothers, Osman, Jafar, Abullah and Abbas were killed. Imam then brought his 6 month old son ‘Ali Asgher. He brought him in his arms under the shade of his cloak. He told the audience, “this baby has not done any harm to you.

He is thirsty, give him some water.” The Commander of Yazid’s army ordered Hurmula who was the best marksman to kill the baby. Hurmula pulled the bow and the arrow killed the baby instantly. Imam brought the baby near the camp, informed his mother of the martyrdom of the baby. He then buried the baby in the sand. Afterwards Imam himself went for battle.

But before that he introduced himself again that he was the grandson of the Prophet in case anyone had any doubts about him and that his guilt was only to refuse to accept the Oath of allegiance of the Tyrannical ruler Yazid.

The enemy was thirsty for the blood of the Imam, they were blind in their eagerness to kill the last of the family of the Prophet. They fell upon his injured and tired body like blood hounds and soon the Imam was also killed. The battle ended in one day.

The evening of the 10th was the darkest for the women and children of the family of the Prophet. Camps were set alight and burnt, their possessions were looted. It was Late at night while they were huddled together waiting for further tortures from the enemy side, that they saw the wife of Hur coming towards them with food and water.

They were hungry and thirsty but none of them was keen to take anything, not even the youngest of the children. Imam Husayn’s youngest daughter Sakina took the tumbler of water and ran towards the open field. Her aunt Zainab asked where was she running to and she replied, her little brother ‘Ali Asgher was thirsty, she was taking some water for him, not knowing that little ‘Ali Asgher was already dead, being the victim of Hurmula’s arrow.

Night passed and the morning came with more pain and grief when they saw that the bodies of the enemy were buried but the grandson of the Prophet with all his sons and brothers and companions lie unburied on the desert sand. The Women and children were taken prisoners with the ailing son of Imam, the 22 year old ‘Ali, leading this battered caravan towards Kufa as the Imam of the family. He was now the 4th Imam.

The Bodies of these Martyrs were buried on 3rd day by tribesmen of Bani Asad, guided by the fourth Imam who was with them miraculously while in prison in Kufa.

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Imam Hasan (as), a brief look into his Life

(This is) an account of the Imam after the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, the date of his birth, the evidence for his Imamates the period of his succession, the time of his death, and the place of his grave. (It also provides) a brief outline of the reports about him.

The Imam after the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was his son al-Hasan, the son of the mistress of the women of the worlds, Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, the Lord of messengers, may God bless him and his pure family. (Al-Hasan’s) kunya was Abu Muhammad. He was born in Medina, on the night of the middle day of the month of Ramadan, three years after the hijra (624).

His mother, Fatima, peace be on her, brought him to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, on the seventh day in a silken shawl from Heaven, which Gabriel had brought down to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family. He named him Hasan and sacrificed a ram for him (in the ceremony of aqiqa).

[It is reported by a group (of authorities), including Ahmad b. Salih. al-Tamimi on the authority of Abd Allah b. Isa, on the authority of Jafar al-Sadiq b. Muhammad, peace be on him;]

Al-Hasan, peace be on him, was the most similar person to the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, in form, manner and nobility.

[It is reported by a group (of authorities), including Ma’mar, on the authority of al-Zuhri, on the authority of Anas b. Malik, who said:]

No one was more like the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, than al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on them.

[Ibrahim b. Ali al-Rafi’i reported on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandmother Zaynab, daughter of Abu Rafi’ – and Shabib b. Abi Rafi’ al-Rafi’i on the authority of those who told him – she said:]

Fatima, peace be on her, brought her two sons, al-Hasan and al- Husayn, peace be on them, to the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, at the time when he was suffering from the sickness from which he died.

“Apostle of God,” she said, “these are your two (grand) sons. Give them something as an inheritance.”

“As for al-Hasan,” he replied, “he has my form and my nobility. As for al-Husayn, he has my generosity and my bravery.”

Al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on him, was the testamentary trustee (wasi) of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, over his family, his children and his followers. He bequeathed him to look after his position and (the position of) his taxes (sadaqat) and he wrote him a covenant (of succession) which is well-known. His testamentary trusteeship is obvious in terms of the outlines of religion, the essential characteristic of wisdom and good-breeding. A great number of scholars have reported this trusteeship and many of the men of understanding have realised the truth of this through his (attitude to) the world.

Al-Hasan’s Succession to the Caliphate and his Abdication

When the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, died, al- Hasan addressed the people. He reminded them of his right (to authority). The followers of his father pledged allegiance to him in terms of fighting those he fought and making peace with those with whom he made peace.

[Abu Mikhnaf Lut b. Yahya al-Azdi reported: Ashath b. Suwar told me on the authority of Abu Ishaq al-Sabi’i and others, who said;]

Al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on them, addressed the people towards dawn on the night in which the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, died. He praised and glorified God and blessed the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. Then he said:

There has died tonight a man who was the first among the early (Muslims) in (good) actions. Nor did any later (Muslims) attain his level in (good) actions. He used to fight alongside the Apostle of God, may Allah bless him and his family, and protect him with his own life. The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, used to send him forward with his standard while Gabriel supported him on his right and Michael supported him on his left. He would not return until God brought victory through his hands.

He, peace be on him, has died on this the night on which Jesus, son of Mary, was taken up (to Heaven), on which Joshua, son of Nuh, the testamentary trustee (wasi) of Moses, peace be on him, died. He has left behind him no gold and silver except seven hundred dirhams of his stipend (ata’), with which he was intending to buy a servant for his family.

Then tears overcame him and he wept and the people wept with him.

Then he continued:

I am the (grand) son of the one who brought the good news. I am the (grand) son of the warner. I am the (grand) son of the man who, with God’s permission, summoned (the people) to God. I am the (grand) son of the light which shone out (to the world) . I am of the House, from whom God has sent away abomination and whom God has purified thoroughly. I am of the House for whom God has required love in his Book, when God, the Most High, said: Say: I do not ask you for any reward except love for (my) kin. Whoever earns good, will increase good for himself [ XXXIII 33 ]. The good is love for us, the House.

Then he sat down.

Abd Allah b. al-Abbas, may God have mercy on him, arose in front of him and said:

People, this is the son of your Prophet, the testamentary trustee (wasi) of your Imam. So pledge allegiance to him.

The people answered him saying:

No one is more loved by us nor has anyone more right to succession (khilafa).

They rushed forward to pledge allegiance to him as successor. That was on Friday on the eleventh of the month of Ramadan in the year 40 A.H. (660). Then he assigned (the posts of) the tax collectors and he gave instructions to the governors (of the provinces). He sent Abd Allah b. al-Abbas to Basra. He took charge of all the matters.

When Mu’awiya b. Abi Sufyan learnt of the death of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and the people’s pledge of allegiance to his son, al-Hasan, peace be on him, he sent a man of secretly to Kufa and a man from Banu al-Qayn to Basra. They were to write reports to him to undermine affairs for al-Hasan, peace be on him. Al-Hasan, peace be on him, learned of that. He ordered the Himyari to be brought out from among (the tribe) of Lakhm in Kufa. He had him brought out and executed. (Al-Hasan) wrote to al-Basra, ordering the Qayni to be brought out from among the Banu Sulaym. He was brought out and executed.

Then al-Hasan, peace be on him, wrote to Muawiya:

You sent men to use deception and to carry out assassinations and you sent out spies as if you want to meet (in battle). That is something which will soon happen so wait for it, if God wills. I have learnt that you have become haughty in a way that no wise man would become haughty. In that you are just as al-Awwal described:

Say to him who desires the contrary of the one who has died: Prepare for another like him, as if (from the same) root.

I and the one among us who has died are like the one who goes in the evening so that (the other) may come in the morning.

Muawiya replied to him with his letter, which there is no need to mention. There followed between him and al-Hasan, peace be on him, correspondences messages and disputes regarding the right of al- Hasan, peace be on him, to authority and the unlawful seizure of power of those who came before his father, peace be on him, and of Mu’awiya’s attempt to strip the nephew of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, from his authority and of their (the House’s) right to it apart from them. (All these) matters would take too long to describe.

Muawiya set off towards Iraq. When he reached the bridge of Manbij, al-Hasan, peace be on him, reacted. He sent Hujr b. Adi to order the leaders of Amman to set out and to call the people together for war.

They were slow to (answer) him and then they came forward. (Al- Hasan) had a mixed band of men: some of them belonged to his Sh’ia and to his father’s: some of them were members of the Muhakimma (i.e. Kharijites) who were influenced by (the desire of) fighting Muawiya with every means (possible); some of them were men who loved discords and were anxious for booty; some of them were doubters; others were tribal supporters who followed the leaders of their tribes without reference to religion.

He set off until he came to Hammam Umar, then he went on to Dayr Kab. He stopped at Sabat, just before the bridge and spent the night there. In the morning, he, peace be on him, wanted to test his followers and make their situation clear with regard to obedience to him, so that in that way he might be able to distinguish his friends from his enemies and be in a clear mind (about his position) to meet Mu’awiya and the Syrians. He ordered the call to be made:

The prayer is a general one (which all should attend) (al-salat jamia).

They gathered and he went up on the pulpit and addressed them. He said:

Praise belongs to God whenever a man praises Him. I testify that there is no god but God whenever a man testifies to Him. I testify that Muhammad is His servant and His apostle whom He sent with the truth and whom He entrusted with revelation, may God bless him and his family. By God, I hope that I shall always be with God’s praise and kindness. I am the sincerest of God’s creatures in giving advice to them.

I have not become one who bears malice to any Muslims nor one who wishes evil or misfortune tor him. Indeed what you dislike about unity (jama’a) is better for you than what you like about division. I see what is better for you better than you see for yourselves. Therefore do not oppose my commands and do not reject my judgement. May God forgive both me and you and may He guide me and you to that in which there is love and satisfaction.

[He reported:]

The people began to look at one another and asked each other, “What do you think he intends by what he has just said?

“We think that he intends to make peace with Muawiya and hand over the authority to him” they answered.

“By Gods the man has become an unbelievers they declared and they rushed towards his tent. They plundered him to the extent that they even took his prayer mat from under him. Then Abd al- Rahman b. Abd Allah b. Ja’al al-Azdi set on him and stripped his silk cloak from his shoulder. He remained sitting, still girt with his sword but without his cloak. He called for his horse and mounted it. Groups of his close associates and his Shia surrounded him and kept those who wanted (to attack) him away from him. He said:

Summon (the tribes of) Rabia and Hamdan to me.

They were summoned to him and they surrounded him and defended him, peace be on him, from the people. A mixed group of others went with him (as well). When he was passing through the narrow pass of Sabat, a man of Banu Asad called al-Jarrah b. Sinan caught hold of the reins of his mule. He had an axe in his hand. He cried:

God is greater (Allaku akbar)! You have become a polytheist, Hasan, just like your father became a polytheist before.

Then he stabbed him in the thigh. It penetrated right through to the bone. He seized (al-Hasan) by the neck and they both fell to the ground. A man from al-Hasan’s Shi’a called Abd Allah b. Khatal al- Tai; pulled the axe away from his hand and struck him with it in the stomach. Another man called Zubyan b. Umara attacked him, struck him upon the nose and killed him. Another man who had been with (al-Jarrah) was caught and killed.

Al-Hasan, peace be on him, was carried on a stretcher to al- Mada’in where he was lodged with Sa’d b. Masud al-Thaqafi. The latter was the governor of (Ali), the commander of the faithful, peace be on him, there and al-Hasan had confirmed him in that position.

Al-Hasan, peace be on him, was distracted by his own (discomfort) and with treating his wound. (In the meantime) a group of the tribal leaders wrote secretly to Mu’awiya offering to accept his authority (lit. to listen and obey). They urged him to come to them and they guaranteed to hand over al-Hasan, peace be on him, when they got to his camp, or to kill him treacherously.

Al-Hasan, peace be on him, learnt of that when a letter came to him from Qays b. Sa’d, may God be pleased with him. He had sent Qays with Ubayd Allah b. Abbas (to go on ahead) when he had set out from Kufa to meet Muawiya and to drive him out of Iraq, and make himself a commander of a unified people (jama’a). He had said to Ubayd Allah:

If you are struck down, then the commander will be Qays b. Sad.

Qays b. Sad’s letter arrived informing him that they had stopped Muawiya at a village called al-Habubiyya opposite Maskan. Then Muawiya had sent to Ubayd Allah b. Abbas, urging him to come to him and offering him a million dirhams, half of which he would give him immediately, and the other half on his entry into Kufa. Ubayd Allah had slipped away in the night with his close associates to (join) Muawiya’s camp. In the morning the people found their leader missing. Qays b. Sa’d, may God be pleased with him, said the prayer with them and took charge of their affairs.

Al-Hasan’s awareness of the people’s desertion of him increased, (as did his awareness) of the corrupt intention of the Muhakkima (the Kharijites) against him, which they made obvious by cursing him, accusing him of disbelief, and declaring that it was lawful to shed his blood and plunder his property. There remained no one to protect him from his unfortunate predicament except the close associates from his father’s Shia and his own Shia, and they were a group which could not resist the Syrian soldiers.

Muawiya wrote to him about a truce and peace treaty. He also sent him the letters of his followers in which they had guaranteed to kill him treacherously or to hand him over. He offered him as many conditions as he wanted, to answer his (call) for peace and he gave his (sworn) covenant by whose fulfilment everybody’s interests would be served. Al-Hasan, peace be on him, did not trust him. He was aware of his deception and his attempts at assassination.

However he could find no escape from assenting to his demands to abandon the war and bring about a truce because of the weakness of his followers’ understanding of his right, their corrupt attitude towards him and their opposition to him. (In addition, he was aware) of the view of many of them in declaring it lawful to shed his blood and to hand him over to his rival. (He also knew) of his cousin’s desertion (of him) and his joining his enemy, as well as the inclination of the people towards the immediate present and their reluctance (to show concern) for the future.

Therefore he, peace be on him, bound himself (in a treaty) with Muawiya as a result of the confirmation of the proof (of his situation) and with the excuses before God, the Most High, and all the Muslims, of what had taken place among them. He stipulated:

That the cursing of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, should be abandoned and the practice of using the personal prayer (qunut) in the formal prayer (salat) (as prayer) against him should be set aside;

That his Shia, may God be pleased with them, should be given security and that none of them should be exposed to any evil; That each of them who had certain rights should attain those rights.

Muawiya accepted all that and made a treaty with him to observe that. He swore to him that he would fulfil it. When the truce had been concluded, Muawiya went on until he reached al-Nukhayla. That was on a Friday; he prayed the mid-morning prayer (duha al nahar) with the people, and he addressed them. In his address, he Said

By God, I have not fought against you to make you pray, nor to fast, nor to make the pilgrimage, nor to pay zakat. Indeed you do that (already). I fought so that I might have power over you and God has given that to me when you were reluctant to (obey) Him. Indeed I have been requested by al-Hasan, peace be on him, (to give him) things and I have given things to him. All of them are now under my foot. And from now on I will not fulfil anything.

Then he went on until he entered Kufa. He resided there for several days. When the pledge of allegiance by its inhabitants had to be carried out, he went up on the pulpit and addressed the people. He mentioned the commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and that he had taken from him and from al-Hasan, peace be on him, what he had taken.

Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, were present. Al- Husayn, peace be on him, rose to reply but al-Hasan, peace be on him, took him by the hand and made him sit down. Then he, himself, (al-Hasan) arose and spoke:

O you who mention Ali, I am al-Hasan and Ali was my father. You are Muawiya and your father was Sakhr (Abu Sufyan). My mother was Fatima and your mother was Hind. My grand father was the Apostle of God and your grandfather was Harb. My grandmother was Khadija and your grandmother was Futayla. May God curse him who tries to reduce our reputation and to diminish our nobility, who does evil against our antiquity and yet who has been ahead of us in unbelief and hypocrisy.

Groups of the people in the mosque shouted out: “Amen, Amen”

When the peace between al-Hasan, peace be on him, and Muawiya was concluded in the way we have mentioned, al-Hasan, peace be on him, left for Medina. He resided there, restraining his anger, staying close to his house, and awaiting the command of his Lord, the Mighty and High, until Muawiya had completed ten years of his administration. (Then) the latter decided to have the pledge of allegiance given to his son, Yazid, (as his successor).

He communicated secretly with Ju’da, daughter of al-Ash’ath b. Qays- she was the wife of al-Hasan, peace be on him – to urge her to poison him. He gave an undertaking to her that he would marry her to his son, Yazid, and he sent her a hundred thousand dirhams. Juda gave him the poison to drink but he lingered on sick for forty days. He passed along his (final) road in the month of Safar in the year 50 A. H. (670).

At that time, he was forty-eight years of age. His succession (to the Imamate) had been for ten years. His brother and testamentary trustee (wasp), al-Husayn, peace be on him, undertook the washing and shrouding of his body, and buried him with his grand mother, Fatima, daughter of Asad b. Hashim b. Abd Manaf, may God be pleased with her, in (the cemetery) of al Baqi.

Reports of the Cause of the Death of al-Hasan, Peace be on him, and of Mu’awiya Poisoning him, the Story of his Burial and the Actions and Statements Concerning that.

[Isa b. Mihran reported: Ubayd Allah b. al-Sabb’ah told us: Jarir told us on the authority of Mughira, who said:]

Muawiya sent to Juda daughter of al-Ashath b. Qays:

I will arrange for you to marry my son, Yazid, on condition that you poison al-Hasan.

He also, sent her a hundred thousand dirhams.

She did that: she poisoned al-Hasan, peace be on him. (Mu’awiya) gave her the money but did not marry her to Yazid. Instead he gave her a man from the family of Talha as a substitute. The latter gave her children. Whenever any argument occurred between them and the clans of Quraysh, they would revile them saying:

Sons of a woman who poisons her husbands.

[Isa b. Mihran reported: ‘Uthman b. Umar told me Ibn Awn told us on the authority ot ‘Umar b. lshaq, who said.]

I was with al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, in the house. Al-Hasan, peace be on him, came in from outside and then went out again. He said:

I have been given poison to drink several times but I have never been given poison like this. A bit of my liver has come out of my mouth and I began to turn it over with a stick I had.

Who gave you the poison to drink, al-Husayn, peace be on him, asked him, and what do you want for him? Do you want him killed? If he may remain as he is, then God will be more terrible in His vengeance than you. It he may not remain as he is, then I should like to be free of any blame.

[ Abd Allah b. Ibrahim reported on the authority of Ziyad al- Makhariqi, who said:]

When death was close to al-Hasan, peace he on him, he summoned al-Husayn, peace be on him, and said.

My brother, I am leaving you and joining my Lord. I have been given poison to drink and have spewed my liver into a basin. I am aware of the person who poisoned me and from where I have been made a subject to this deceitful action. I will oppose him before God, the Mighty and High. Therefore by the right I have with regard to you, say nothing about that and wait for what God, the Mighty and High, will decide concerning me.

When I have died, shut my eyes, wash me and shroud me. Then carry me on my bier to the grave of my grandfather, the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, so that I may renew my covenant with him. After that take me to the grave of my grandmother, Fatima daughter of Asad, may God be pleased with her, and bury me there.

My brother, the people will think that you intend to bury me with the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. For that reason, they will gather to prevent you from doing it. I swear by God that you should not shed even your blood into the cupping-glass in (carrying out) my command.

Then he made his testamentary bequests to his family and his children. (He gave him) his heirlooms and the things which the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, had bequeathed to him when he had made him his successor, had declared him worthy to occupy his position, and had indicated to his Shia that he was his successor, and set him up as their sign-post after himself.

When he passed on his (final) journey, al-Husayn, peace be on him, washed and shrouded his (body). Then he carried him on his bier. Marwan and those of the Banu Umayya who were with him had no doubt that they would try to bury him beside the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. They gathered together and armed themselves. When al-Husayn, peace be on him, approached the tomb of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, with (the body of al-Hasan) so that he might renew his covenant with him, they came towards them with their group. ‘A’isha had joined them on a mule and she was saying:

What is there between you and me that you should allow someone I don’t want to, to enter my house?

Marwan began to recite:

O Lord, battle is better than ease.

(Then he went on:)

Should Uthman be buried in the outskirts of Medina and al-Hasan be buried alongside the Prophet, may God bless him and his family? That will never be while I carry a sword.

Discord was about to occur between the Banu Umayya and the Banu Hashim. Ibn ‘Abbas hurried to Marwan and said to him;

Go back to where you came from, Marwan. Indeed we do not intend to bury our companion with the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. But we want him to be able to renew his covenant with him by visiting him. Then we will take him back to his grandmother, Fatima, and bury him alongside her according to his last instructions concerning that. If he had enjoined that he should be buried alongside the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, you know that you would be the least able to deter us from that. However, he, peace be on him, was much too aware of God and His Apostle and the sacredness of his tomb to bring bloodshed to it as others have done (who) have entered it without his permission.

Then he went to A’isha and said to her:

What mischief you bring about, one day on a mule and one day on a camel! Do you want to extinguish the light of God and fight the friends (awliya’) of God? Go Back ! You have been given assurance against what you fear and have learned what you wanted (to know). By God, victory will come to this House, even if it is after some time.

Al-Husayn, peace be on him, said:

By God, if there had been no injunction to me from al-Hasan, peace be on him, to prevent bloodshed and that I should not even pour blood into a cupping-glass in (carrying out) his command, you would have known how the swords of God would have taken their toll from you, you have broken the agreement which was made between you and us, you have ignored the conditions which we made with him for ourselves.

Then they went on with (the body of) al-Hasan, peace be on him, and they buried him in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi’ beside his grandmother, Fatima daughter of Asad b. Hashim b. ‘Abd Manaf, may God be pleased with her.

Complete ref:

Kitab al Irshad (The Book of Guidance)
Pages 279 – 289
By Sheikh al Mufid
Translated by I.K.A Howard
Published by Tahrike Tarsile Quran
Paper back, I.S.B.N 0-940368-11-0

Contributed by Br. Ali Abbas, abbas@seas.gwu.edu

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The First Imam, ‘Ali (as) Ibn Abu Talib

It was Friday 13th of Rajab 30 Amulfeel Hazrat Fatima binte Asad, the wife of Hazrat Abu Talib entered the precincts of the Kaaba and prayed to Allah saying O’my protector ease my pain.’All of a sudden the wall of the Kaaba opened up and she, as if by some unseen force went inside the Kaaba and the wall closed.

‘Ali (as) the youngest son of Abu Talib was born inside the Holy Kaaba. She stayed inside for three days. On the 3rd day she came out through the door and Muhammad was waiting outside. She told Muhammad (S) that the boy had not taken any milk. Muhammad gave him the first feed from his mouth and afterwards asked his uncle Abu Talib that he wished to adopt the baby.

‘Ali entered the house of Muhammad from the very first day of his birth. ‘Ali’s mother Fatima binte Assad Also lived there who looked after his own son as well as Muhammad (S) so much so that later the Holy Prophet used to say that she was like his own mother.

Shah Waliullah, Mohadith-e-Dehlvi writes in the book “Izalatul Kholafa” giving reference from Imam Hakim in his Mustadrak Part 3, Page 483. Qud Tawatarul Akhbar Inna Fatimah Binte Asad woledat Aliyan Fi Jaufil Kaaba”. Another writer of the old school Sibtel Jauzi in his book Tazkeratul Khawas ul Umma, page 7 mentions the same fact that ‘Ali was born inside the Kaaba.

Khawja Moinuddin Chishti Ajmeri mentions this fact in his famous Quartet saying that when ‘Ali was born inside the kaaba the Sky and the earth was filled with a light and Angel Gabriel announced that a child was born in the house of God.

Maulana Rumi in his Mathnawi writes, “ O’one who travels to Najef to visit the tomb of ‘Ali must know the fact that the pearl of the Kaaba lies there to give us security because of our intense love for him.”

Masoodi the famous historian writes in his book of history Muruj el Zahab, that ‘Ali was born inside the Kaaba on the orders of Muhammad the Messenger of God.

It was after the adoption of ‘Ali (as) that he lived with the Holy Prophet in his house.

Wherever Muhammad (S) went ‘Ali (as) was with him all the time. Even in the Mountain of Hira when Muhammad (S)went for meditation ‘Ali (as) went with him most of the time. Sometimes they stayed on the mountain for 3 or 4 days. Sometimes ‘Ali (as) took his food there. In Nahjul Balagha ‘Ali (as) said that “ I used to go with the Holy Prophet like the baby camel goes with his mother.”

Some historians try to show that when Muhammad (S) declared his prophet hood ‘Ali (as) was the first among male children who accepted Islam. The implication here is that both Muhammad (S) and ‘Ali (as) were non -believers before this declaration.

This is against the Qur’anic verdict which says that Ibrahim was a Muslim and he taught his children to be Muslims so that when the Prophet was born among the descendants of Ibrahim through the line of Ismael he was born a Muslim and so was ‘Ali. The correct thing to say would be that when Muhammad (S)declared his prophet hood openly ‘Ali (as) immediately adhered to the declaration without hesitation.

The three persons seen in prayers in the Kaaba were Muhammad, Khadija and ‘Ali before anyone else accepted Islam. For 3 years young and poor persons of Makka were accepting Islam secretly. The first open declaration came when the Qora’nic verse tells the Prophet to “come out openly and warn the people of your own clan.”

Invitations were sent to leaders of the Banu Hashim to come to the house of Muhammad (S)for Dinner. Forty of them came, ate food and then heard Muhammad (S)about his mission of ‘ No god but Allah and Muhammad (S) as the messenger of Allah and whoever offers his help to propagate this religion will be his deputy and successor.

No one stood up except ‘Ali (as) . After announcing this 3 times Muhammad (S) declared that ‘Ali (as) will be his deputy to his mission and will be his successor after him. People thought it as a joke that a 13 year old boy was to be a deputy of this prophetic mission.

Even Abu Lahab jokingly told Abu Talib, go and obey your son to which AbuTalib smilingly accepted. ‘Ali (as) promised to help Muhammad (S) in his mission and kept this promise all his life.

The next thing which we see in the life of ‘Ali (as) is the reflection of this promise he gave at this place in front of the leaders of the Quraish.

We see ‘Ali (as) protecting Muhammad (S) from the abuses of the enemies of Islam. When Muhammad (S)went to Taif a nearby town to preach Islam children of Taif hurled stones and it was ‘Ali (as) who protected the Prophet and drove the stone throwing children away from the Prophet.

As a youth ‘Ali (as) was strongly built, strong arms, wide chest and a very strong brave and shining face. Children of his age and even older to him were frightened of him and whenever they tried to mock the Prophet, they always ran away when they saw ‘Ali (as) standing by for protection.

Time passed and hostility of the Quraish increased so much so that Muhammad (S) was ordered by Allah to leave Makka. ‘Ali (as) slept on Muhammad’s bed without hesitation and when the non-believers entered the house of Muhammad (S) to kill, they found ‘Ali (as) who was not afraid at all at the site of 40 swordsmen entering the house.

When they questioned ‘Ali: ”where is Muhammad” he bravely replied, did you leave him in my custody? When after 3 days of Muhammad’s departure ‘Ali returned all the goods entrusted to Muhammad to their owners, he set out to leave Makka for Madina with the rest of the family.

‘Ali (as) had with him his mother Fatima binte Asad, His aunt, the wife of Hamza, and Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad (S) and many other ladies. Non-believers of Makka tried to stop ‘Ali (as) from his departure but ‘Ali (as) fought back, drove the infidels away and safely reached Madina. Muhammad (S) was waiting for the family outside the precincts of the town. He entered the city with ‘Ali (as) and the rest of the family.

The Holy Prophet created a bond of brotherhood between the Muslims, making ‘Ali (as) as his Muslim brother saying O’’Ali, you are my brother in this world as well as in the next.

Once the family settled in the newly adopted city of Madina their first task was to complete the mosque around which their houses were also built. ‘Ali initially stayed with his mother but when he married Fatima the daughter of the Prophet he was given a house next to the Prophet by the side of the mosque. He had been betrothed to her several days before the battle of Badr.

But the marriage was celebrated three months later. ‘Ali was about 23 years old and Fatima was 18. This was most happy and celebrated marriage. The distinctiveness of their respective characters blended so well with each other that they never quarreled and complained of one another and led a happy and most contended life.

Materially the couple did not possess much, spiritually they were at the highest level of assent. They had no worries if they go hungry or their clothes had patches. They would be more concerned if an orphan goes away from their door without receiving any food.

History records ‘Ali’s life in Madina with the Holy Prophet for the next ten years as the busiest in defending Islam against the attackers from Makka. ‘Ali (as) was always the standard bearer of the Flag of Islam in all such battles and his bravery became legendary.

Ibne Abil Hadid, the Motazelli commentator of Nahjul Balagha says that: ‘Ali (as) had a personality in which opposite characteristics had so gathered that it was difficult to believe a human mind could manifest such a combination. He was the bravest man that history could cite and such brave men are always hard hearted, cruel and eager to shed blood.

On the contrary ‘Ali was kind, sympathetic, responsive and warmhearted person, qualities quite contrary to the other phase of his character and more suited to pious and God fearing persons.’Ali’s bravery and piety both became legendry. Life in Madina while the Holy Prophet was alive was the busiest for ‘Ali. But he remembers these times as the best times of his life. He says in Nahjul Balagha ‘Life with my brother was a life of ease and happiness.’

The battles of Badr, Ohud, Khandaq and Khyber were fought in the defense if Islam and won on the hands of ‘Ali (as) . He was not only the standard bearer of the Flag of Islam in these battles, but always led the forces of Islam against Kufr and came out victorious. Khyber was the climax of these battles when ‘Ali’s victory brought prosperity in the Muslim ranks.

Ayesha the wife of the Prophet said once that until the victory of Khyber we in the house of the Prophet spent days without food. It was only after Khyber that life at home became a little easier. Thus ‘Ali (as) brought an end to the hostilities of Quraish in three encounters of Badr, Ohud and Khandaq.

Their best warriors were killed, their unity against Islam was crushed, their pride was humiliated and their prestige before Arab clans was lowered by him and by him alone. Khyber saw an end to the hegemony of Jews in Arabia at the hands of ‘Ali (as) .

The peace agreement of Hodaibiya was written by ‘Ali (as) and at the time of the peaceful victory at Makka, the idols of the Kaaba were demolished by the Holy Prophet with the help of ‘Ali (as) .Details of these battles were shown in the life of the Prophet.

Battle of Honain

The Victory of Makka brought many non believers into the fold of Islam. Broadly speaking there were three types who embraced Islam. Fear, greed and the true understanding of Islam and its principles. Some of the Makkans became Muslims for fear of their lives, they were afraid that the Prophet would kill them, others were simply frightened that the Holy Prophet with the help of Angel Gabriel would bring the wrath of God on them.

Then there was greed that Islam was now victorious, so if they joined in the good life would be theirs for free. Very few of them truly understood Islam and accepted it as a true faith. The Test of their true faith came immediately after the fall of Makka while Muslims were still in the sweet pleasure of this bloodless victory, that various tribes outside Makka gathered an army of 20,000 in Taif to fight the Muslims.

The hostile tribes decided to attack at a vantage point at Hunain and selected two prominent places where they concealed their archers. The Muslims were proud of their success in Makka, but their behavior during the encounter was timorous and cowardly. The Qur’an tells us this in (9:9):

“God came to your help on so many occasions, on the day of Honain, your vanity in the number of your soldiers and your arrogance did not prove any avail to you, you were badly defeated and could not find any place of shelter, you started running away without shame.”

This encounter took place in the month of Shawwal 8th Hijri (Jan 630 AD). When the Muslim army marched towards the place where archers were concealed the enemy opened the campaign with such a severe onslaught that the Muslim army could not stand it.

Their assault was fierce and confusion in the Muslim ranks made the archers bolder and they came nearer and attacked from both flanks and from the front. The Muslims could not stand the attack and started running without putting any resistance and where not concerned to leave the Prophet alone, (see Saheeh Bukhari).

The first battalion to run was the one in the command of Khalid ibne Waleed(Rauzathus Safa vol II page 137) This was followed by such a disorderly and tumultuous flight that only 10 people were left out of an army of 15,000 with the Holy Prophet. Eight of them were of Bani Hashim,(.Abbas, two of his sons, ‘Ali and three other cousins of the Holy Prophet)

Abbas was shouting to the Muslims to come back, reminding them of the oath of allegiance taken and promises made, but it was to no avail. Those who accepted Islam for greed , wealth and power were not willing to risk their lives.

Many of them who had carefully hidden their enmity from the rising power were happy at the defeat. They gathered round Abu Sofian, started congratulating him and saying, “The magical circle of the lying Prophet is broken,” They were praying for the return of Polytheism. 1.

Once again it fell to the lot of ‘Ali (as) to save the Holy Prophet and the Islam. Armies of Bani Hawaazen and Banu Saqeef under cover of their archers were rushing the hillock and were getting ready for a fierce onslaught.

‘Ali (as) divided the small band of faithful true Muslims in three divisions; to Abdullah Ibne Masood, Abbas ibne Abdul Muttalib and Abu bin Harris has assigned the duty of protecting the Holy Prophet, to three he ordered to guard the rear and he himself faced the onslaught with only three warriors with him.

He fought, wounded at many places, but continued fighting when he faced the commander of the hostile army, Abu Jerdal in hand to hand fight and killed him with one stroke of his sword. He alone killed over 30 of the enemy and with this bravery his aids also fought bravely and enemy was defeated.

The day was saved, the commander of the enemy’s army was killed, their ranks were broken they had no courage to face ‘Ali (as) and they started retreating. The sight of the powerful army in retreat, made the fleeing Muslims bold and they came back as victory was won for them 2.

The defensive battles were over and the peaceful spread of Islam began. ‘Ali (as) was again in the forefront. He brought the whole tribe of Bani Hamdan to Islam by preaching . Similarly when he was sent to Yemen he brought the whole country in to the fold of Islam by his sermons.

This news so pleased the Holy Prophet that he bowed down in Sajdah to thank God three times and said loudly, peace be to Bani Hamdan and to ‘Ali. Again in the year 10th of Hijra ‘Ali’s sermon and preaching proved so effective that the whole province embraced Islam as one man.

In the 9th year of Hijra the famous event of Mobahela took place. Najran was a city in the province of Yemen. It was the center of Christian Missionary activities in southern Arabia. The Holy Prophet had written to the Chief Priest of the City to realize the blessings of Islam.

In reply he wrote that he personally would like to discuss the teachings of this new religion. His name was Haris. He was invited and came with a group of 14 priests.

These priests as guest of the Holy Prophet. Long discussions took place during the course of 4 days of their stay in Madina. When Sunday came the Chief priest wanted to go out of the city to have their Sunday Service. Prophet Islam said that they all have permission to conduct their religious service inside the mosque of the Prophet which they happily did.

Long discussions continued about monotheism verses trinity and it was realized that these priests were not open minded, on the contrary they were prejudiced against monotheism. The Almighty Lord ordered the Holy Prophet to explain to that:

“Verily Jesus is as Adam in the sight of God. He created Adam from dust. He said unto him, Be, and he was. This is truth from thy Lord. be not therefore one of those who doubt, and whoever shall dispute thee, say unto them, “come let us call together our sons and your sons, our women and your women, our Selves and your Selves, then let us make imprecations and lay the curse of God upon those who lie.” (3:61)

According to Bibi Ayesha when the above verse was revealed to the Apostle of God, he called ‘Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn and said, “Lord, this is my family (Ahlul Bayt). The Holy Prophet took this small family with them to the open land outside the city where they all assembled to bring the curse of God on those who lie.

When the Chief priest saw these faces, he told his companions that he was looking at the faces that if they call the mountain, the mountain will go them. Do not have Mobahela with them or you will be destroyed. On hearing this they all agreed to pay homage to the Holy Prophet and an annual tax for living in the Islamic State and withdrew from the scene.

Designation of ‘Ali as successor to the Prophet

In history there were numerous occasions when the Holy Prophet designated ‘Ali as his Deputy and successor after him. From the moment of Zulasheera to the time of the conquest of Khyber and the occasion of the battle of Tabuke the Holy Prophet made it abundantly clear that no one deserved more than ‘Ali to be his Deputy and successor. But at the time of Ghadeer this was clearly ordered by Allah through a clear verse revealed on the Prophet. The Verse said,

“O’ apostle; proclaim the whole of that which hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord, for if thou dost it not, it will be as if thou hast not at all performed the duty of His Prophethood. And God will protect thee from evil men, verily God guideth not the unbelievers.” (5:67.)

The occasion was after the last pilgrimage in 10th Hijri. The Prophet delivered his Sermons on Mount Arafat, had the final rounds of the Kaaba and left for Madina. More than 120,000 pilgrims were coming out with him from Makka going to the North.

Half way through their journey where the routes were separated for various pilgrims, the Holy Prophet ordered the whole caravan to halt. All those who went ahead were called back and for those who were behind they waited for them to arrive.

The place was Ghadeer, near the pool of water. That is why it was named Ghadeer-e-Khom. When all assembled at this place the Holy Prophet stood up on top of the pulpit and said, “People, shortly I shall be called towards my creator where I shall have to give an account as to how I have conveyed His message to you and you in your turn will be asked as to how you have accepted and carried out the teachings. Now tell me what you will say”.

Thereupon all the pilgrims declared as one man, “Apostle of God, we testify and declare that you have conveyed the message of God fully, you have strived your utmost to guide us to the Right Path and taught us to follow it. You were most kind to us and you never wished for us but our good, may God repay you for all that.”

After that the Prophet said, “Do you not testify that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is His creature, His servant, and His apostle, that there is the Heaven and the Hell, that death will overtake every one of you, that you will be brought back from your graves that the Day of Judgement will surely dawn and human beings will be resurrected from their graves to account for their deeds.

The whole crowd declared in unison, “We believe and testify all this.” Hearing this the Apostle declared, “I am leaving amongst you two most important things worthy of obedience, the Qur’an and my progeny (Ahlul Bayt). Take care how you treat them, they will not separate from each other till they reach me at the fountain of Kauser.”

Then he said, “The Almighty God is my Lord (Maula) and I am the Lord of all Muslims and have more right and power on their lives than they themselves. Do you believe in this assertion of mine?” They all in one voice replied “Yes O’Apostle of God. Three times he asked the same question and three times he received the same affirmative reply.

At this solemn affirmation he said, “Hear and remember that to whomever I am Lord or Maula, ‘Ali is the Lord and Maula to him. He is to me what Aaron was to Musa. The Almighty God is a friend to his friends and a foe to his foe, help those who help him and frustrate those who betray him.

While saying this he raised ‘Ali High over his shoulders in order to be seen by all the Muslims assembled there. Thereupon the Holy Prophet received the final revelation:

This day I have perfected your religion for you and have filled up the measure of my bounties upon you and I am pleased with Islam to be your Deen,” (5:3).

After performing this ceremony and receiving the above revelation the Holy Prophet came down from the pulpit and ordered a tent to be erected. In this ‘Ali (as) was made to take his seat and all Muslims were ordered to pay homage to him and address him as Amirul Momeneen (Lord of the faithful) The first person to congratulate and address him as such was Omar Ibne Khattab saying, “I congratulate you, O’’Ali, today you have become my Maula and Lord and Lord of every Muslim man and woman. 1.

The event of Ghadeer was on 18th of Zilhijja 10th Hijri, immediately after the last pilgrimage by the Holy Prophet. He then arrived back in Madina and lived only for 70 days after the event.(130 Prominent Companions of the Holy Prophet narrated this Hadith including the first three Kholafa-e-Rashidoon)

The year 11th AH was the saddest year for ‘Ali. (as) He lost two of his best friends. One of whom he loved and venerated like a father, like a master and like a dearest friend, the Holy Prophet(S) who died on 28th Safar 11th Hijri, exactly 70 days after the event of Ghadeer. His death followed by the death of his dearest companion his wife Fatima, the Lady of Light.

Immediately after the death of the Holy Prophet who was buried by ‘Ali (as) with the help of his uncle Abbas and all the family of Bani Hashim, the news was given to ‘Ali (as) about the events at the Saqeefa that Abubakr was made Caliph. Abu Sofian heard the news came to ‘Ali (as) and told him that his Right was taken away from him.

If he wishes, Abu Sofian would fill the city of Madina with horsemen to defend ‘Ali’s Right of Khilafat. ‘Ali’s reply was typical, he said,” since when you have become friends of Islam”, you want to create serious dissension amongst the Muslims. You have always tried to harm Islam I do not need your sympathies or help.”

‘Ali realized that any serious dissension at this stage would harm the cause of Islam. He had before him the example of Hodaibiya and he had been foretold by the Holy Prophet of all that would happen. Allama ‘Ali Ibne Mohammed (630 AH) in his book Usdul Ghaba Vol iv page 31 says, The Holy Prophet had told ‘Ali, your status is like that of Kaaba.

People go to Kaaba but that August house never approaches anybody. Therefore after my death, if people come to you and swear the oath of allegiance you accept it and if they do not come to you then you do not go to them.”

‘Ali’s love for Islam was so intense, he could not, for the sake of worldly rule, endanger Islam. He knew fully well that a civil war at this stage would give chances to the Jewish tribes of Banu Nuzair and Banu Qoraiza on the one side, and the Byzantine armies in the north with the Munafiqoon (hypocrites) the new converts on the third side to simply take advantage of the situation.

When they would find the Muslims busy killing each other they would literally cut them to pieces and Islam would totally disappear as a message of peace. ‘Ali’s utmost desire was to see Islam and the Arabs in one piece and wanted the enemies of Islam to realize that Islam was strong enough to defend itself as “Deen”. even after the demise of the Apostle of God.

He had another important job to complete that is the completion of the collection of Qur’an with its Tafseer (explanations) according to the instructions of the Holy Prophet. Qur’an as a book was already completed by the Holy Prophet, many copies were made and circulated among the Muslim communities all over the Islamic world.

What ‘Ali did in the next six months after the demise of the Holy Prophet was to collect all the explanations of the various verses, reasons behind their revelation and their full context. This monumental job he completed in six months and brought before the Muslims in the city of the Prophet.

Unfortunately this was ignored by the ruling party and ‘Ali (as) took it back with him. Their comment was “this is too bulky and people will not understand it.”

The original remained with ‘Ali (as) all his life and then passed on to his son Hasan (as) and then to Husayn (as) which then continued with the Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet. It is now with the 12th Imam (as) .

During the time of the three Kholafa, although ‘Ali (as) did not take part in any of the battles, he was always available when they sought his advice on religious matters. His position as the jurist was on the top of the list among the companions of the Holy Prophet.

Omar Ibne Khattab the 2nd Caliph had given clear instructions that when ‘Ali was present in the mosque of the Prophet no one should take precedence over him in answering questions on religious matters.

In one such encounter during the time of the 2nd Caliph, a group of Jewish scholars approached the caliph and said, “ We have a few questions. If we get the answers to these questions correctly, we will accept the Islamic faith. “Ask whatever you want to ask,” said the caliph. They asked the following questions.

1. What are the locks and keys of heaven?

2. Who was the messenger who was neither of the human nor of the jinn and who warned his people?

3. Which are the 5 beings that were created without the aid of ovaries?

4 What are one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven and twelve?

The caliph thought over these questions for a time, then said, I do not know the answers to these questions. I will take you to a man who is most knowledgeable in the commandments of God and the Prophet and the greatest among us. The caliph then brought the Jewish scholars to ‘Ali (as) . They asked the same questions to him. ‘Ali (as) answered thus:

1. The locks of the heavens are beliefs in more than one God, and its keys are the letters of “La Ilaha Illallah, Muhammad-Ur-Rasulallah.”

2. The messenger who warned his people is the ant who, when Solomon’s army was passing by, said to his people, “ Enter your houses so that the army may not stamp you out (without intention)”. So God states in the Holy Qur’an,

“Until they came to the valley of the Ants, said an ant (addressing the other ants of the valley) O” you ants’ enter into your dwellings, so that Solomon and his hosts may not crush you while they know it not”. (27:18)

3. The five beings that were not born of ovaries are: Adam, Eve, the staff of Moses which used to change into a python, the camel of Saleh, and the sheep of Ibrahim (which was sent by God to become a ransom of the life of Ibrahim’s son Ismael).

4. One is God who has no partners, two are Adam and Eve, three are the substances ( i.e. non-living matter, plants and animals), four are the Heavenly books: Torah of Moses, Bible of Jesus, Zubur of Dawood and the Qur’an of Muhammad (S).

Five are the daily prayers. Six are the days of creation of the heavens and earth, as per the verse of the Qur’an:

“And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and what is between them two, in six periods and touched us not any fatigue.” (Surah 50:38). Seven are the seven heavens, in the light of the Qur’anic Verse: “And we have erected above you the seven strong ones.” (78:12)

Eight are those angels who bear the heavens, as per the Qur’anic Verse:

“And the angels shall be on the side of it; and above them shall bear that day ‘Arsh’(the throne of authority). of your Lord, eight of them (69:17)

Nine are the nine signs given to Moses as stated by God:

“And indeed we gave Moses nine clear signs (miracles); so ask the children of Israel when he came to them, Pharaoh said to him; “Verily I deem you O’Moses one bewitched.”
(17:101).

Ten are the ten days, i.e. God had promised Moses that he would stay on the mountain of Toor for thirty days, and later added ten more days to this duration, as it is stated in the Qur’an.

“And we made an appointment with Moses for thirty nights and completed it with ten more;” Thus was completed the term of his Lord, forty nights, and (before he went up) Moses said to his brother Aaron: You take my place among my people, act rightly and follow not the path of the mischief-makers.” (7:142).

Eleven are the brothers of Joseph, son of Jacob, as the Qur’an states,

“When said Joseph to his father, O’my father; Verily I did see (dream) eleven stars and the sun and the moon,, I saw them all prostrating to me.” (12:4).

Twelve are the Twelve water-springs manifested by the staff of Moses, as God states,

“And (remember) when Moses sought water for his people; said We, ‘Strike the rock with your staff’ Then gushed out therefrom twelve springs; each people knew their drinking place; “Eat and drink God’s provision, and commit not evil in the earth acting mischievously.” (2:60)

When the Jewish scholars heard the replies of ‘Ali (as) they said, “We bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad (S) is His Messenger and ‘Ali (as) is the “Wasi” and successor of the Messenger of God as Aaron was the Wasi of Moses. They all embraced Islam, went back to their tribe and converted all of them to Islam.(Kaukabe Durri).

After the death of Osman the 3rd Caliph ‘Ali (as) was elected by the overwhelming majority of Muslims as the 4th Caliph. He was reluctant to accept the office of the caliph but when pushed by the majority , accepted it by saying that he was taking the reins of worldly authority only to bring back the Ummah of the Prophet on the Right Path, though the value of this worldly khilafat is less than the sneeze of a goat.

His position as an Imam and guide was already established during the period of three earlier khulafa, with worldly power he began the daunting task of establishing the type of rule the Messenger of God had established during his time.

Imam Bukhari mentioned in his Saheeh that the very first prayers which ‘Ali (as) led in the mosque of the Prophet as the Caliph, many companions of the prophet said that “today we have prayed as the Messenger of God used to pray”.

But during the past 25 years many companions of the Prophet had, due to excessive wealth coming in from the conquest of the foreign lands, changed into the habit of living like feudal lords of the period of Jahiliya of pre-Islamic days. ‘Ali (as) as caliph warned them of the dangers of excessive wealth by these words. ” Beware of the intoxication of wealth”.(Masudi,Muruj el Zahab).

The path of ‘Ali (as) was full of thorns and as soon as he tried to establish the austere path of the Messenger of God, he created many enemies. The first and foremost was the Governor of Syria Moawiya ibne Abi Sofian.

He persuaded Talha and Zubair,when they were denied the Governorship of various provinces by ‘Ali (as) , to start a revolt against ‘Ali. (as) Both of them left Madina, arrived in Makka and somehow persuaded bibi Ayesha the widow of the Prophet to start a fight against ‘Ali. (as) They left Makka for Basra and assembled an army against ‘Ali. (as) .

He warned them of the dangers of war against the caliph upon whose hand they had taken the oath of allegiance, but persuasion from Moawiya and promises of Governorship of various provinces was so strong that they would not hear any advice. ‘Ali (as) left Madina in pursuit of these deviants and two Muslim armies faced each other near Basra.

When many companions of the Prophet saw this they questioned the validity of this war and cast doubt as to which party was on the right path. ‘Ali (as) replied in the most subtle way to these doubters. “ Truth cannot be identified from men, find the truth and you will find the deserving person”.

The battle of Jamal was fought, ‘Ali ‘s army was victorious, both Talha and Zubair were killed by their own men and bibi Ayesha was sent back to Madina under the escort of her brother Muhammad ibne Abibakr. She always repented this venture and asked forgiveness from God.

When with the connivance of Moawiya her brother Muhammad ibne abi bakr was killed and his body was put into the body of a dead camel and burnt, she cursed Moawiya five times a day after every prayer, throughout her life..

The Battle of Siffin was also fought due to the deviant action of Moawiya against the Islamic State. Some companions of ‘Ali’s army deserted him by accepting bribes from Moawiya and due to this deceitful action the battle of Siffin remained indecisive, no one won and no one lost.

In the meantime this deviant group which was later named as “Khawarij” meaning deviant, began to spread trouble within the Islamic State by looting and burning villages and killing women and children that ‘Ali (as) fought against them and the battle of Nahrwan took place.

On the way to Nahrwan ‘Ali (as) passed a monastery. An old Christian monk who also claimed to be an astrologer of some repute called out, “ O’ army of Islam, ask your leader to come to me. Upon hearing this ‘Ali (as) turned his horse towards the monastery and approached the monk. Where do you go ask the monk. To fight the enemies of Islam, replied ‘Ali (as) .

Do not fight now, because at this moment the stars do not favor the Muslims. Wait for a few days when the stars will become favorable for you. ‘Ali (as) replied, do you defy Allah for this action we are taking on the orders of Allah and for His Deen.

‘Ali (as) said, “ since you profess knowledge of the stars, tell me about the movement of such and such star.” The old man said, By God, I have never heard the name of this star. ‘Ali (as) asked him another question about the skies and when the old man failed to reply said “It is now known that you do not know about the skies.

Shall I ask you about the earth? Tell me what is buried beneath your feet at the spot where you stand. I do not know said the old monk, “There is a vessel filled with so many silver coins and the coins bear such and such emblem. How do you know enquired the monk”.

“By God’s grace.” said ‘Ali (as) . Then ‘Ali proceeded to say that in the ensuing fight, less than ten persons of Islamic army would be killed whereas less than ten persons from the opposing army would escape. The old monk listened astonished. As per ‘Ali’s command, when the earth beneath the feet of the monk was dug, a vessel filled with silver coins was found exactly as described by ‘Ali (as)

‘Ali (as) proceeded to Nahrwan and in the ensuing fight, the Khawarij were thoroughly defeated. Out of the four thousand men of the Khawarij only nine escaped and only nine men of the Islamic army were killed in this battle. (Rawdhatul Shuhada, Kaukab el Durri )

Returning from the battle ‘Ali (as) passed the monastery and when the monk heard the full story he embraced Islam immediately.

‘Ali (as) also admonished him about his belief in astrology. He said “ do you think you can tell the hour when a man goes out and no evil befall him. Whoever testifies this falsifies the Qur’an and becomes unmindful of Allah in achieving his desired objective and in warding off the undesirable.”

Then ‘Ali (as) addressed to his own soldiers and said “Beware of learning the science of stars except that with which guidance is sought on land or sea, because it leads to divining and an astrologer is a diviner, while a diviner is like the sorcerer, the sorcerer is like the unbeliever and the unbeliever’s place is in hell.”(Nahjul Balagha)

The four years and ten months of the Khilafat of ‘Ali (as) has been regarded by many historians as the best example of Islamic State after the Prophet of Islam’s death, in spite of the fact that the family of Abu Sofian tried their best to destroy it.

Imam Abu Yousuf the famous disciple of Imam Abu Hanifa in his book about the history of Kholafae Rashedun declares above the title of his book that ‘Ali’s (as) time of Khilafat was the best in the management of the Islamic State and most just.

Many European historians mentioned ‘Ali’s name with love and affection. Carlyle writes in his Heros and Heroworship that” ‘Ali had such a personality that he was liked, loved and venerated by everybody. He was the man of excellent character loving and lovable, so intensely brave that if anything stood against his bravery it was consumed as if by fire, yet he was so gentle and kind that he represented the model of a Christian Knight.”

The famous Egyptian scholar Mohammad Abdoh relates a story about the time of the conquest of Alexandria during the reign of the 2nd caliph. They found a great library there and did not know what to do with it.

Orders were issued from Madina that ‘if these books are according to the Holy Qur’an, then we do not need them and if they say anything contrary to the Holy Qur’an then we do not want them. Therefore, in any case they ought to be burnt. (Akhbarul Ulama wa Aakhbarul Hukama of Ibne Quftee, pages 232 and 233,Printed Cairo).

When ‘Ali (as) heard the news of this, he tried to pursuade them to refrain from issuing such order. He told them, “These books are treasures of knowledge and they cannot say anything against the Holy Qur’an.

On the contrary the knowledge contained therein would act as commentaries of the Holy Book and would assist and help in further explanations of the knowledge as presented by the Holy Prophet. Knowledge is an asset for human beings and a birth right of man. It should not be destroyed.”

It was 19th of Ramadan 41 Hijri while ‘Ali (as) was leading the morning prayers and was in the second Sajdah of the 2nd Rakaat that Ibne Muljim’s sword fell and the life of the greatest warrior saint was taken away to his merciful Lord.

The famous christian writer of Lebanon George Jurdaq writes in his books on ‘Ali (as) that with this one blow of the sword of Ibne Muljim the world was deprived of the person who, if had lived a few more years would have given the world a system of administration that future generations would have benefited for a long time to come.”

In fact the letter to his Governor of Egypt Malike Ashter advising him of the “Do’s and Don’ts for a successful administration of the State is the hall mark in the annals of history”. We can only say that ‘Ali’s supreme wisdom provides the guidance of a stature that mankind can aspire to.

‘Ali (as) injured with the wound from the poisonous sword lived for two days. In these two days he dictated his Will and last testament to his son Hasan (as) which is again a brilliant part of literary history.

He advised his eldest son to love God and obey Him and to live for the service of the people in the way of God. “And then do not forget to set apart the best of your time for communion with God, although every moment of yours is for Him, provided it is spent sincerely in the service of your people.”

‘Ali’s (as) sermons, collected by Sayyid Razi in the 4th century (AH) are the examples of the most brilliant piece of Arabic literature that after the Holy Qur’an and the authentic Hadith of the Prophet of Islam, ever produced.

What Sayyid Razi could compile in Nahjul Balagha does not contain all the Sermons, letters and sayings of ‘Ali (as) . Masoodi (d.346) in his famous book of history Muruj-al-Zahab says that the only Sermons of ‘Ali, (as) which have been preserved by various people, number more than 480.

These were extempore orations, people have copied them from one another and compiled them in the book forms’ they have cited them and quoted passages from them in their books. The famous companion and pupil of ‘Ali (as) Hasan al Basri had made such arrangements that one of his own friends would memorize the sermons delivered in the mosque of Kufa and relate the same in the next Friday prayer in Basra. This shows the deep interest people of his own time had in these sermons and sayings.

Apparently out of these 480 sermons some were lost and Sayyid Razi could lay hands on only 245 sermons. Besides them he has collected about 75 letters and 489 sayings. Almost every one of the sermons, sayings and letters collected in Nahjul Balagha is to be found books of authors who died long before Sayyid Raza was even born.

Here we quote a few selected sayings of ‘Ali (as) from Nahjul Balagha, The numbers given as they appear in the English translation by Sayyid ‘Ali Raza from Pakistan.

1. During civil disturbance be like an adolescent camel that has neither a back strong enough for riding nor udders for milking.”( 1, page 568)

2. He who adopts greed as a habit devalues himself, he who discloses his hardship agrees to humiliation, and he who allows his tongue to overpower his Nafs debases the Nafs.(2 page 569)

5. Knowledge is a venerable estate, good manners are new dresses and thinking is a clear mirror. ( 5, page 569)

7. Charity is an effective cure, and actions of people in their present life will be before their eyes in the next life.( 7, page 570)

10.Meet people in such a manner that if you die they should weep for you and if you live they should long for you.( 10, page 571)

27.” Keep walking in your sickness as long as you can.”(27, page 576)-A simple cure through exercise and ignoring the sickness as much as possible)

31. Faith stands on four supports: on endurance, conviction, justice and Jihad.(31 page 576)

40. The tongue of the wiseman is behind his heart and the heart of the fool is behind his tongue.(40 page 579)

45. Even if I strike the nose of a believer with this sword for hating me, he will not hate me, and even if I pile all the wealth of the world before a hypocrite for loving me he will not love. This is because it is pronounced by the tongue of the beloved Prophet. O’’Ali, a believer will never hate you and a hypocrite (Muslim) will never love you.( 45 page 580)

54. There is no wealth like wisdom, no destitution like ignorance, no inheritance like refinement and no support like consultation.(54 page 584)

64. The people of the world are like travelers who are being carried while asleep. 64, page 584)

67. Do not feel ashamed for giving little, because refusal is smaller than that.( 67, page 584)

90. The perfect jurist of Islam is he who does not let people lose hope from the mercy of Allah, does not make him despondent of Allah’s kindness and does not make him feel safe from Allah’s punishment.( 90 page 589)

117. Two categories of persons will face ruin on account of me; he who loves me with exaggeration and he who hates me intensely. (117 page 594)

146. Protect your belief by charity, guard your wealth by paying Allah’s share, and ward off the waves of calamity by praying.(146 page 600)

334. Beware of disobeying Allah in solitude, for the witness is also the judge.(334. page 648)

The famous French historian and Orientalist Gabriel Enkiri writes in his famous book ‘Le chevalier de Islam’, In the extremely superfine, grand and noble character of ‘Ali, there were two traits which, it is difficult to believe that can be united in one man.

Besides ‘Ali, history cannot show any other man who has displayed these two qualities at one and the same time, and each one, in such a marked way that none can surpass him.

1. He was the greatest marshal of his time (even of all time) and , 2. He was the wisest man who could explain and expound religion, philosophy, science, sociology and ethics, in a style which was not and which cannot be improved; what is more, he was such a great speaker that his speeches enchant you even fourteen centuries after his death”.

Read the book called Nahjul Balagha and find out yourself.

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Muhammad, the Messenger of God: A Brief Biographical Sketch

Muhammad, the Messenger of God: A Brief Biographical Sketch

Authors(s):

 

Birth to Commencement of Revelation

Muhammad al-Mustafa, the last Prophet of God, was born in Mecca, Arabia, on 17th Rabī‘ al-Awwal, 1st Year of ‘Ãmul Fil (570 AD).

Prophet Muhammad (God’s blessings and peace be upon him) was born in the family of Banu Hãshim, of the tribe of Quraysh, who were the most honoured of the Arab families. Banu Hãshim were descendants of Ismael, the son of Prophet Abraham.

The Prophet’s grandfather, ‘Abdul Muttalib, was the chief of Banu Hashim and also the guardian of the Ka‘bah. His father was called ‘Abdullãh and his mother, Ãmina. His father passed away a few months before his birth. At the age of six, the Prophet lost his mother as well and was placed under the care of his grandfather, ‘Abdul Muttalib. But his grandfather also passed away after four years; and at this time the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Tâlib, took charge of him and became his guardian, taking him to his own house. Thus the Prophet mostly grew up in his uncle’s house and even before reaching the age of adolescence used to accompany his uncle on business journeys by caravan.

Prophet Muhammad did not receive any schooling; yet, after reaching the age of maturity he became famous for his wisdom, courtesy, trust-worthiness and truthfulness. He soon became known as “the truthful, the trustworthy – as-sãdiq al-amín”. His uncle Abu Tãlib used to say, “We have never heard any lies from Muhammad, nor seen him misconduct himself or make mischief. He never laughs unduly nor talks untimely.”

As a result of his sagacity and trustworthiness, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, a Qurayshi lady well-known for her wealth, appointed him as the manager of her businesses and left in his hands the task of conducting her commercial affairs. The Prophet once journeyed to Damascus with Khadija’s merchandise and because of his abilities made an outstanding profit. Before long she asked to become his wife and the Prophet accepted her proposal. After the marriage, at the age of twenty five years, the Prophet began the life of a manager of his wife’s fortunes. By the age of forty, he gained a widespread reputation for wisdom and trustworthiness.

He refused to worship idols, as was the common religious practice of the Arabs of the time. Occasionally he would make spiritual retreats to the cave of Hirã’ outside Mecca, in which he prayed and discoursed secretly with God.

The Beginning of the Mission

At the age of forty, when Prophet Muhammad was in spiritual retreat in the cave of Hirã’, he received the first revelation from God through Arch-Angel Gabriel: this was the beginning of the mission of propagating the new religion. At that moment the first five verses of Chapter 96, Surah al-Alaq, of the Qur’ãn were revealed to him. (This event is known as bi‘that — being raised to proclaim God’s message.)

That very day he mentioned the revelation to his cousin, ‘Alí bin Abi Tãlib who declared his acceptance of the faith. After the Prophet returned home and told his wife of the revelation, she likewise accepted Islam. Soon after, Zayd bin Hãritha (a loyal slave whom he treated like his own son) also became a convert.

The first time that the Prophet invited people to accept the message of Islam, he faced a distressing and painful reaction. Out of necessity he was forced henceforth to propagate his message secretly for three years until he was ordered again by God to invite his very close relatives to accept the message. He organized a family feast and invited forty of his kinsmen. At the gathering, Muhammad asked if they had ever found him lying? The general response was: ‘We have never found you lying.’ Then he asked, “If I were to tell you that your enemies have gathered beyond the sand hills to attack you, would you believe me?” They replied, ‘Yes.’ Then he said:

“I know no man in all Arabia who can offer his kindred a more excellent thing than I now do. I offer you happiness both in this life and in the hereafter. God Almighty has commanded me to call you unto Him. Who, therefore, among you will assist me herein shall become my brother, my heir and my successor.”

But this call was also fruitless and no one heeded it except ‘Alí bin Abi Tãlib, who in any case had already accepted the faith. According to the historical documents and the extant poems composed by Abu Tãlib, Abu Tãlib had also embraced Islam; however, because he was the sole protector of the Prophet, he hid his faith from the people in order to preserve the outward power he had among the people of Mecca.

After this period, according to Divine instructions, the Prophet began to propagate his mission openly. With the beginning of open propagation the people of Mecca reacted most severely because the Islamic message —of worshipping One God and of equality among the believers without any distinction of race, colour or wealth— fared completely against the status quo. Most painful afflictions and tortures were inflicted upon the Prophet and the new converts.

For example, Bilal, an Ethiopian slave who had accepted Islam, was tied to the burning sand of the Arabian desert and a large stone was placed on his chest with the warning from his master Umayya that he would be left in that state until he rejects Islam. But the only sound heard from Bilal’s lips was: “Ahad! Ahad!” (One God! One God!)

The Quraysh treated the believers so harshly that a group of about 100 Muslims, under the leadership of Ja‘far bin Abi Tãlib, left their homes and belongings, and migrated to Abyssinia. They were told by the Prophet that they would find the Abyssinian king to be a just ruler. With the intention of stopping the spread of Islam, the Quraysh pursued them to Abyssinia seeking their extradition. But Ja‘far eloquently presented the Muslims’ case to the Abyssinian king, and the request of the Quraysh was rejected.

Ja‘far said:

“O King! We were plunged in the depth of ignorance and barbarism; we worshipped idols, we lived an unchaste life, we ate dead bodies and we spoke abominations; we disregarded every feeling of humanity and the duties of hospitality and neighbourhood; we knew no law, but of the strong — when God raised among us a man, of whose noble birth, truthfulness, honesty and purity we are aware; and he called us to the Unity of God and taught us not to associate anything with Him; he forbade us the worship of idols; and enjoined on us to speak the truth, to be faithful to our trusts, to be merciful and to regard the rights of neighbours; he forbade us to speak evil of women or to eat the sustenance of orphans; he ordered us to fly from vice and to abstain from evil; to offer prayers, to render alms, to observe the fast.

We have believed in him, we have accepted his teachings and his injunction to worship God and not associate anything with Him.

For this reason our people have risen against us, have persecuted us in order to make us forgo the worship of God and return to the worship of idols of stone and wood and other abominations. They tortured and injured us, until finding no safety among them; we have come to your country and hope you will protect us from their oppression.”

Back in Mecca, economic and social boycott was imposed on the Prophet and his family. Therefore, the Prophet and his uncle, Abu Tãlib, along with their relatives from the Banu Hashim, took refuge for three years in the “mountain pass of Abu Tãlib,” a fort in one of the valleys of Mecca. No one had any dealings or transactions with them and they did not dare to leave their place of refuge.

Although the idol-worshippers of Mecca at the beginning considered inflicting all kinds of pressures and tortures such as striking and beating, insult, ridicule and defamation of the Prophet, occasionally would also show kindness and courtesy toward him in order to have him turn away from his mission. They would promise him great sums of money or leadership and the rule of the tribe. But for the Prophet, their promises and their threats only resulted in the intensification of his will and determination to carry out his mission. Once, when they came to the Prophet promising him wealth and power, the Prophet told them, using metaphorical language, that if they were to put the sun in the palm of his right hand and the moon in the palm of his left hand, he would not turn away from obeying the One God or refrain from performing his mission.

The Migration to Medina

About the tenth year of his prophecy, when the Prophet left the “mountain pass of Abu Tãlib,” his uncle Abu Tãlib, who was also his sole protector, died, as did also his devoted wife Khadijah. Henceforth there was neither the protection of his life nor any place of refuge.

Finally the idol-worshippers of Mecca devised a secret plan to kill the Prophet. At night they surrounded his house with the intent of forcing themselves in the house at the end of the night and cutting him to pieces while he was in bed. But Almighty God informed him of the plan and commanded him to leave for Yathrib. The Prophet asked ‘Alí to sleep in his bed so that the enemy would not detect his absence; ‘Alí readily agreed to sacrifice his life for the Prophet and slept in the Prophet’s bed. Then the Prophet left the house under Divine protection, passing amidst his enemies, and taking refuge in a cave near Mecca. After three days his enemies, having looked everywhere, gave up hope of capturing him returned to Mecca. The Prophet left the cave and set out for Yathrib.

Establishing an Islamic Community

The people of Yathrib, whose leaders had already accepted the message of the Prophet and sworn allegiance to him, welcomed him with open arms and placed their lives and property at his disposal. In Yathrib, for the first time, the Prophet formed a small Islamic community and signed treaties with the Jewish tribes in and around the city as well as with the powerful Arab tribes of the region. He undertook the task of propagating the Islamic message and Yathrib became famous as “Madīnatu ‘r-Rasūl” (the City of the Prophet). Later on, it became famous as “Medina”

Islam began to grow and expand from day to day. The Muslims, who in Mecca were caught in the mesh of the injustice and inequity of the Quraysh, gradually left their homes and property and migrated to Medina, revolving around the Prophet like moths around a candle. This group became known as the “immigrants” (muhãjirin) in the same way that those who aided the Prophet in Yathrib gained the name of “helpers” (ansãr).

The Prophet formulated the society on the basis of justice and equality among the believers. Brotherhood —not just in words but in action— was established among the muhãjirin and the ansãr. The social system of Islam even extended its justice and protection to the non-Muslims under its rule.

Encounters on the Battlefields

Islam was advancing rapidly but at the same time the idol-worshippers of Mecca, as well as the Jewish tribes of Arabia, were unrestrained in their harassment of Muslims. With the help of the hypocrites of Medina who were among the community of Muslims, they created new misfortunes for the Muslims every day until finally the matter led to war.

Many battles took place between the Muslims, the Arab polytheists and the Jews. The Muslims were victorious in most of those battles. In all the major conflicts such as the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, Khaybar, Hunayn, etc., the Prophet was personally present on the battle scene. Also in all the major battles and many minor ones, victory was gained mainly through the efforts of ‘Alī bin Abi Tãlib. He was the only person who never turned away from any of these battles. In all the wars that occurred during the ten years after the migration from Mecca to Medina, less than two hundred Muslims and less than a thousand infidels were killed.

The Battle of Badr

The Meccans continued their attempts to destroy Islam. They continued to harass the Muslims who remained in Mecca and also confiscated their properties and belongings. Abu Jahl, the leader of the Meccans, even sent a letter to the Prophet threatening him of the attack by the Meccans. It was in response to such aggression that Almighty God gave the permission to fight the unbelievers of Mecca. He said,
 
“Permission [to fight] is granted to those who are being killed because they have been oppressed…those who have been expelled from their homes without a just cause…” (Surah al-Hajj, 22:39-40)

In the second year of the migration (hijra), the Prophet with about 300 ill-equipped Muslims confronted a well-equipped Meccan force of about 1000 soldiers. Though outnumbered, the Muslims were able to defeat the unbelievers in their first armed encounter with the enemy.

The Battle of Uhud

To avenge their defeat at Badr, the Meccans raised another military force in the third year after hijra and marched towards Medina. After reaching the hills of Uhud, four miles outside Medina, the Prophet took up his position below the hill. The army arrayed in fighting formations. Fifty archers were posted, under the command of ‘Abdullah bin Jubayr, at a pass between the hills to guard the Muslims from any rear attack. They had strict orders not to leave their posts, no matter what the outcome of the battle.

The Muslims initially defeated the Meccans. The enemy, having suffered a heavy loss, fell back in disorder and the Muslims started gathering booties.

Thinking that the fight was over, most of the fifty archers guarding the hill passage left their posts against the orders of their commander. Khãlid bin Walīd, a commander of the Meccan cavalry force, seized the opportunity and led his cavalry through the mountain pass and, after killing the few remaining archers, launched a furious attack upon the Muslims from the rear.

Because of the disobedience of a small group, the victory was taken away from the Muslims. Most fled from the battlefield. A few, especially ‘Alí, stood their ground and fought till the end. The Muslims finally retreated to the security of the heights of mount Uhud. Among the 70 Muslims who died in this counter attack of the Meccans was Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, the courageous uncle of the Prophet. He was, indeed, the Lion of God (asadullâh).

The Battle of Khandaq (Ahzãb)

In the fifth year of the hijra, a Jewish tribe formed an alliance with the Meccans; and together they raised an army of about 10,000 soldiers. This battle is known as Ahzãb (i.e., alliance) and also as Khandaq (i.e., ditch) because the Muslims had dug a ditch around their campsite to prevent the enemy from entering the city.

The Allied forces of the non-Muslims besieged Medina for a month. Except for a few famous soldiers, they were unable to cross the ditch. The Allied forces finally retreated after ‘Alí, in a one-to-one encounter, killed the most courageous of their fighters.

The Bani Qurazah Battle

The Bani Qurazah had concluded a peace agreement with the Muslims, but they violated the agreement by joining the Meccans in the Battle of Ahzãb. So, after the Battle of Ahzãb, the Muslims proceeded towards the Bani Qurazah who finally surrendered to the Muslims. The Prophet proposed to them to accept the arbitration of Sa‘d bin Ma‘z. They agreed and were dealt with by his decision: to kill the fighters and confiscate their properties.

The Bani Mustalaq War

In the sixth year of the hijra, the tribe of Bani Mustalaq violated the rights of the Muslims. As a result, they had to face the Muslim forces at a place called Maris’a and were defeated.

The Battle of Khaybar

A large number of Jewish tribes had settled in Khaybar forts and the surrounding area of northern Arabia. They had close ties with the Meccans and had constantly threatened the Muslims. In the seventh year of hijra, the Prophet decided to face the enemy. The Muslims marched to Khaybar, put it under siege and, finally, gained victory after ‘Alí marched forward, conquered the main fort and killed the bravest of the Jewish soldiers.

The Treaty of Hudaybia & The Fall of Mecca

In the sixth year of the hijra, the Prophet decided to go for pilgrimage to Mecca. The Meccans stopped the Muslims at a place called Hudaybia and did not allow them to enter the city. This encounter ended in a peace agreement between the Prophet and the Quraysh of Mecca. This peace agreement created a relatively safe environment for the Prophet to embark on extending the call of Islam to the tribes and people far away from Arabia.

As a result of the activity of the Prophet and the selfless effort of the Muslims during that period, Islam spread through the Arabian Peninsula. There were also letters written to kings of other countries such as Persia, Byzantine and Abyssinia inviting them to accept Islam.

During this time the Prophet lived in poverty and was proud of it. He never spent a moment of his life in vain. Rather, his time was divided into three segments: one for God, in worshipping and remembering Him; a segment for himself and his household and domestic needs; and a segment for the people. During this part of his time he was engaged in spreading and teaching Islam and its sciences, administrating to the needs of the Islamic society, removing whatever evils that existed, providing for the needs of the Muslims, strengthening domestic and foreign bonds, and other similar matters.

One of the conditions of the peace treaty was that the Quraysh would not harm the Muslims or any of their confederates. This condition was, however, violated by the Quraysh when they helped Bani Bakr tribe against the Khuza’a tribe—the former an ally of the Quraysh and the latter an ally of the Muslims. The Prophet asked the Quraysh to respect the treaty, break their alliance with Bani Bakr and compensate the victims of their aggression. The Quraysh refused to abide by the terms of their treaty. The Prophet, with a well-equipped and well-disciplined force of about 10,000 soldiers, marched into Mecca in the eighth year after the hijra and conquered it without much resistance.

The city, which had rejected his message, plotted against his followers and conspired to assassinate him was at his mercy. Prophet Muhammad asked the Meccans: “What can you expect at my hands?” “Mercy! Generous and Noble Sire!” they replied. If he had wished, he could have made them all his slaves. But Muhammad —“mercy for the universe”— said: “I will speak to you as Joseph spoke to his brethren. I will not reproach you today; God will forgive you, for He is Merciful and Loving. Go, you are free!”

With the fall of Mecca, the last barrier in the way of Islam had been removed and many people and tribes of the Arabian Peninsula started accepting the message of Islam. Thus the ninth year of hijra is known as the “Year of Delegations” because of the unusual number of delegates coming to pay their homage to the Prophet at Medina.

The Last Pilgrimage & Death

In the tenth year of the hijra, the Prophet decided to go for hajj (pilgrimage). He invited Muslims to join him and be acquainted with the hajj rituals. Over a hundred thousand Muslims joined him in the hajj. Although this was the first and the last hajj of the Prophet, it is known as “al-Hajjãtu ‘l-widâ’ — the Last Pilgrimage.” He seized the opportunity of the unprecedented gathering to remind the Muslims of many important values of Islam.

On the way back to Medina, he stopped at Ghadir Khumm and delivered a lengthy sermon in which he summarized the major teachings of Islam, informed the Muslims of his approaching death and appointed ‘Alí bin Abi Tãlib as his successor.

After ten years of stay in Medina, the Prophet fell ill and died after a few days of illness. According to existing traditions, the last words on his lips were advice concerning slaves and women.

La Martine’s Homage to the Prophet

An eighteenth century French historian, La Martine, writes the following in his Histoire de la Turquie (1854) about the Prophet of Islam:

“Never has man set for himself, voluntarily or involuntarily, a more sublime aim, since this aim was superhuman: to subvert superstitions which had been interposed between man and his Creator, to render God unto man and man unto God; to restore the rational and sacred idea of divinity amidst the chaos of the material and disfigured gods of idolatry, then existing…”

“If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astounding results are the true criteria of human genius, who could dare to compare any great man in modern history with Muhammad?…
“Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas, of a cult without images; the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire, that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?”

This short biographical sketch of the Prophet is from: Islam: Faith, Practice & History.

Recommended Books on the Prophet’s Life

1.      A Glance at the Life of the Prophet of Islam
By Dar Rah-e Haq, Qum.

2.      The Life of Muhammad the Prophet
By Syed Saeed Akthar Rizvi

3.      The Message
By Ja‘far Subhani

4.      Muhammad: A Western Attempt to Understand Islam
By Karen Armstrong
Items 1 to 3 are also available on-line at www.al-islam.org

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